ES 140 - Test 1 Study Guide

ES 140 - Test 1 Study Guide - ES 140 Test 1 Study Guide...

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ES 140 Test 1 Study Guide Scientific Method 1. Science – the methodical study (scientific method) of something. Method for acquiring knowledge. Natural science – studies natural phenomena i.e. biological life. Social science studies human behavior and societies. 2. Scientific Method - method for acquiring knowledge. Techniques for investigating phenomena, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. 3. Hypothesis – Suggest explanation for a phenomenon or of a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible correlation between multiple phenomena. Hypotheses generally based on previous observations or on extensions of scientific theories. 4. Theory – hypothesis that has been thoroughly tested. Generally new. 5. Law – theory that has been rigouroulsy tested. Withstood the test of time. 6. Why is testability important to the scientific method? - you need evidence to support hypothesis. 7. Why study natural disasters? – Science: interesting/understand. Societal Impacts: prevention, predict, preparation/planning, protection/survival 8. Number of disasters stay more or less constant over time. Scientific Notation and the Metric System - Metric Unit Prefixes Tera (T) 10 12 Giga (G) 10 9 Mega (M) 10 6 Kilo (K) 10 3 centi (c ) 10 -2 milli (m) 10 -3 micro (μ) 10 -6 nano (n) 10 -9 Earth as a System (made of gas/atmosphere, water, rock, biological stuff) 1. Earth Size – Circumference 40,000 km, Radius = 6371 km 2. Weight/density : 5000 kg/m 3 (density) = 5.973 x10 24 kg (mass) 3. Earth Age: 4.567 Giga (Billion) yrs old 4. Earth iron core : about 4,350 mi in diameter. Inner core is a solid mass 1,520 mi in diameter with temperatures up to 7,770 F. Outer core: mostly liquid. Viscous movements of convection currents in core generate magnetic field. Entire iron rich core is like a melted mass of metallic meteorites. 5. Earth’s rocky mantle : Surrounds core. About 1,800 mi thick. Compositions similar to chondritic, stony meteorites. Mantle comprises 83% of Earth’s volume and 67% of its mass. Uppermost 435 mi thickness of mantle is depleted in light elements and thus differs from the lower zone which is 1,365 thick. 6. Earth’s continental crust : Years of heat flow toward Earth’s surface “sweated out” many low density elements to form a continental crust. Continents make up .1% of volume.
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7. 4 major reservoirs that make up the earth system: Atmosphere – N2, O2 plus traces of other stuff. Gaseous envelopes around the earth, composed mainly of nitrogen and O2. Average weight of atmosphere on earth’s surface is about 14.7 lb/in 2 . Hydrosphere – the waters of the earth, including the ocean, lakes and rivers Biospher e – biological matter Geosphere – solid rock and sediments 8. Compositional layers of the solid Earth: Earth’s layering are 1) separations based on differing densities due to varying chemical and mineral compositions or 2) layers with different strength. Core
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This note was uploaded on 09/01/2011 for the course CAS ES 140 taught by Professor Fitzgereld during the Spring '07 term at BU.

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ES 140 - Test 1 Study Guide - ES 140 Test 1 Study Guide...

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