Biol6a - Biology 6B 01 Chemistry & Biochemistry Brian...

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1 Brian McCauley Bio 6B Spring 2011 Ectopic Expression of Germline Genes Drives Malignant Brain Tumor Growth in Drosophila Science , 24 December 2010 Model organisms such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster can help to elucidate the molecular basis of complex diseases such as cancer. Mutations in the gene lethal (3) malignant brain tumor cause malignant growth in the larval brain. Here we show that l(3)mbt tumors exhibited a soma-to-germline transformation through the ectopic expression of genes normally required for germline stemness, fitness, or longevity. Orthologs of some of these genes were also expressed in human somatic tumors. In addition, inactivation of any of the germline genes nanos , vasa , piwi , or aubergine suppressed malignant growth. Our results demonstrate that germline traits are necessary for tumor growth in this model and suggest that inactivation of germline genes might have tumor-suppressing effects in other species. The Big Questions The Big Questions How do cells use energy? How do genes work? How do cells make more cells? How do cells communicate? Background to How molecules work A map of the cell How membranes work Enzymes and metabolism The Big Questions The Big Questions Course Logistics http://faculty.deanza.fhda.edu/ mccauleybrian/ Exploring Life Chapter 1 Levels of organization Biology 6B 01 Chemistry & Biochemistry Brian McCauley Spring 2011
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2 Exploring Life Chapter 1 A cell as a system Exploring Life Unity in diversity Atoms Chemical Bonds Water The Chemical Context of Life Chapters 2 & 3 Structure of Atoms Electrons occupy orbitals. Orbitals have energy levels. Biology 6B 01 Chemistry & Biochemistry Brian McCauley Spring 2011
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3 Periodic Table Atoms Chemical Bonds Water The Chemical Context of Life Chapters 2 & 3 Nonpolar Covalent Bonds 2 electrons shared equally. Each atom completes its valence shell. The two atoms have equal electronegativity. Polar Covalent Bonds 2 electrons shared unequally. Each atom completes its valence shell. The two atoms have unequal electronegativity. Ionic Bonds Less electronegative atom loses an electron (gets oxidized). More electronegative atom gains an electron (gets reduced). Redox reaction. Ionic bond formation: a redox reaction Strength of ionic bonds depends on environment. Biology 6B 01 Chemistry & Biochemistry Brian McCauley Spring 2011
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4 The compound is different from its atoms Hydrogen Bonds Electrostatic attraction of partially charged regions (dipoles).
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Biol6a - Biology 6B 01 Chemistry & Biochemistry Brian...

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