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08CellCycle11Sp - Biology 6B 8 Cell Cycle Brian McCauley...

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1 Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle Controlling where, when, and how cells are made. Origin of replication Chromosomes attached to opposite ends of cell Binary fission in bacteria Eukaryotes are more complex Multiple, complex chromosomes. Diploid. Organelles. Mitotic phase: dividing Interphase: working & growing Eukaryotic cell cycle Chromatin decondensed; transcription & replication Nucleoli present Nuclear envelope present G 1 : growth G 0 : cell cycle arrest S: DNA synthesis G 2 : growth; prepare for division Interphase G 2 of interphase Phases of mitosis Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis Biology 6B 8 Cell Cycle Brian McCauley Spring 2011
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2 Nuclear envelope breaks down Chromatin condenses Nucleoli disappear Mitotic spindle forms Sister chromatids present Prophase events prophase prometaphase G 2 of interphase Mitotic Spindle Chromosome & Chromatid Homologous chromosomes & sister chromatids centrosome spindle kinetochore chromosomes Chromosomes line up on “metaphase plate” Metaphase Biology 6B 8 Cell Cycle Brian McCauley Spring 2011
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3 Metaphase Kinetochore microtubules Overlapping microtubules Microtubules at metaphase Metaphase Sister chromatids pulled apart, becoming daughter chromosomes. Anaphase Kinetochores pull the chromosomes Anaphase Biology 6B 8 Cell Cycle Brian McCauley Spring 2011
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4 Anaphase Stages of mitosis: centromere protein E Telophase Chromatin decondenses Nuclear envelope reforms Each chromosome has 1 DNA copy Mitotic spindle dismantled animal plant Cytokinesis Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle Checkpoints Biology 6B 8 Cell Cycle Brian McCauley Spring 2011
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5 G 1 : growth Should the cell divide? G 2 : DNA replication chromosomes copied? M: mitosis chromosomes aligned? Cell Cycle Checkpoints G 1 Checkpoint: the restriction point G 0 What gets checked? G1 is the only checkpoint that checks for factors external to the cell (as well as internal factors). G 1 : commitment point. Cell growth, growth factors, attachment, density, etc. Anchorage (& growth factor) dependence Cancer cells lack these restraints Density-dependent inhibition G 1 Checkpoint: the restriction point What gets checked? G1 is the only checkpoint that checks for factors external to the cell (as well as internal factors).
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