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10Mendelian11Sp - Biology 6B 10 Mendelian Genetics Brian...

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1 Mendel’s experiments Segregation Independent assortment 14: Mendelian Genetics They code for proteins (except for those that don’t). Eukaryotes have 2 copies of most loci. Things you know about genes Sexual reproduction makes new combinations of alleles. Mutations happen. There is genetic variation within populations. Offspring resemble their parents. There are dominant & recessive alleles. Things you know about genes How can we predict what hybrid offspring will look like? How can a trait “skip” a generation (i.e., how can a trait be recessive)? Mendel’s questions Mendel’s peas Each flower is male & female. They normally self- fertilize. It’s possible to cross- fertilize them. Get true-breeding strains of peas. Look for discrete traits: flower color, pea shape, etc. Mendel’s experiments Biology 6B 10 Mendelian Genetics Brian McCauley Spring 2011
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2 Remove stamens from purple flower. Transfer pollen from white flower to purple. Plant seeds, observe offspring. Mendel’s Experiments Cross true- breeding parents to get F 1 generation; Breed F 1 individuals to get F 2 generation. Mendel’s Experiments Hybrid (heterozygous) individuals have 2 different alleles at a locus. Either allele may be passed on. Law of segregation Phenotype vs. Genotype At any given locus, you have an equal chance of passing on mom’s allele or dad’s allele. Probabilities & Punnett Square Genes are passed from grandparent to parent to offspring without changing.
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