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MT3SG11Sp - Midterm 3 Study Guide Sprin g 2011 Bio 6...

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Page 1 of 4 M i d t e r m 3 S t u d y G u i d e Spring 2011 Bio 6B/Brian McCauley D ATE & F ORMAT Midterm 3 will be on Monday, June 6. The format will be similar to the previous midterms. You’ll have the whole class period. I MPORTANT C ONCEPTS DNA & Gene Expression DNA structure: What parts are the same for all the nucleotides? What parts are different? What’s the structural difference between RNA and DNA? Show what antiparallel & complementary mean. DNA serves as a template for making DNA & RNA DNA replication: Origin of replication, replication fork, replication bubble. Draw a diagram showing how these relate to each other. Remember that the replication fork diagrams in the book aren’t showing the ends of the DNA molecule – just one side of a replication bubble. 5’, 3’. Diagram the 5’ and 3’ ends of template DNA, primers, and newly synthesized DNA. Why are new nucleotides added only at the 3’ end? Primase & primer. Compare DNA synthesis to transcription in terms of priming. How is priming in PCR different from priming in cellular DNA synthesis? Topoisomerase, helicase, & single- strand binding protein DNA polymerases. Why is there more than one kind? DNA ligase. Do eukaryotes need it? Do prokaryotes need it? Leading & lagging; Okazaki fragments. Why are the two ends different? Be sure to diagram this in terms of a whole replication bubble – not just a replication fork. End-replication problem; telomeres & telomerase. Which strand gets extended by telomerase? How does this help solve the end-replication problem? Study the diagrams. Which cells have telomerase, and which don’t? What is a gene? What is a transcription unit? Does one gene always code for one protein? Chimpanzees and humans: how different are the genomes? Why is this question hard to answer? What makes chimpanzees different from humans – different proteins? Different genes? In comparing humans of asian and caucasian descent, how is it possible to have a large number of expression differences but a small number of sequence differences? Transcription basics Translation: Genetic code; codon. How many codons are there? How many code for amino acids? What do the others do?
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