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DiveS11 - Gas Physics FICK’S LAW Adolf Fick, 1858...

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Unformatted text preview: Gas Physics FICK’S LAW Adolf Fick, 1858 Fick’s law of diffusion of a gas across a fluid membrane: /  Rate of diffusion = KA(P2–P1) D Wherein:   K = a temperature ­dependent diffusion constant.   A = the surface area available for diffusion.   (P2–P1) = The difference in concentraKon (parKal pressure) of the gas across the membrane.   D = the distance over which diffusion must take place. Properties of “Ideal” Gases •  Gases are composed of molecules whose size is negligible compared to the average distance between them. –  Gas has a low density because its molecules are spread apart over a large volume. •  Molecules move in random lines in all directions and at various speeds. –  The forces of attraction or repulsion between two molecules in a gas are very weak or negligible, except when they collide. –  When molecules collide with one another, no kinetic energy is lost. •  The average kinetic energy of a molecule is proportional to the absolute temperature. •  Gases are easily expandable and compressible (unlike solids and liquids). •  A gas will completely fill whatever container it is in. –  i.e., container volume = gas volume •  Gases have a measurement of pressure (force exerted per unit area of surface). –  Units: 1 atmosphere [atm] (≈ 1 bar) = 760 mmHg (= 760 torr) = 14.7 psi = 0.1 MPa Boyles Law Amontons Law •  Gas pressure (P) is inversely proportional to gas volume (V) •  P ∝ 1 /V ∴ ↑V→↓P ↑P→↓V •  ∴ P1V1=P2V2 ↓V →↑P ↓P →↑V (if no gas is added/lost and temperature is held constant) •  ↓V → also ↑density •  Gas pressure (P) is directly proportional to absolute gas temperature (T in °K) •  0°C = 273°K •  P ∝ T ∴ ↑T→↑P Charles Law •  0°C = 273°K ∴ ↑T→↑V ↑V→↑T •  ∴ V1/T1=V2/T2 ↓T →↓V ↓T →↓P ↓P →↓T (if no gas is added/lost and volume is held constant) ∴ Combined Gas Law •  Gas volume (V) is directly proportional to absolute gas temperature (T in °K) •  V ∝ T ↑P→↑T •  ∴ P1/T1=P2/T2 ↓V →↓T (if no gas is added/lost and pressure is held constant) •  Combining Boyles, Amontons & Charles Laws: •  ∴ P1V1/T1= P2V2/T2 •  •  •  •  •  •  (if no gas is added/lost) P1 = initial pressure V1 = initial volume T1 = initial absolute temperature P2 = final pressure V2 = final volume T2 = final absolute temperature •  Ideal Gas Law: PV=nRT •  n = total number of gas molecules in the vessel •  R = constant Heyer 1 Diving Physiology Carbon dioxide (0.03%) Argon (0.93%) Oxygen (20.95%) Gas Exchange Partial Pressure (PO2) ~ 0.2 atmospheres Nitrogen (78.09%) Partial Pressure (PN2) ~ 0 .8 atmospheres diving 1.0 Atmosphere Total Pressure Diving: potential hazards Air (gases) in our atmosphere are heavy and put pressure on us m 10 on er llo at ba erw sh nd Pu u 2 Atmospheres of Pressure “1 Atmosphere” of Pressure Gas Exchange: notes Why seals can dive so long (and avoid the hazards) Balloon shrinks to half its size at surface! Partial Pressure (PO2) ~ 0.4 atmospheres Partial Pressure (PN2) ~ 1 .6 atmospheres 2.0 Atmospheres Total Pressure Gases can d iffuse (spread out to lessconcentrated places) and dissolve in water. 10 meters n atio entr onc sure hC Hig l Pres artia P Water is heavy and increases pressure/compresses gasses. Also note: When carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolves in water, it creates an acid (carbonic acid lower pH). / Low Concentration/ Partial Pressure Free diving & shallow-water blackout Regulation of the drive to breathe Free diving = breath-hold diving Hyperventilate → ↓P CO in blood → y ou don’ t feel 2 the need to breathe → dive long & deep. Diving → ↑depth →↑P O , so you extract more O2 2 from air. With low PCO in blood, you still don’ t feel the need 2 to breathe. Ascent → ↓depth →↓↓P O . 2 Increasing PCO2 decreases pH, stimulating you to breathe SCUBA: self-contained underwater breathing apparatus Decompression Sickness (Bends) SCUBA: breathing air at ambient pressure At 30 meters depth, your whole body feels a pressure of 4 atm ( 1+3) -- including the air in your lungs. Diving → ↑depth →↑P N . N2 dissolves in tissues. 2 ↓P O 2 in blood to brain → loss of consciousness SCUBA: self-contained underwater breathing apparatus Air Embolism SCUBA: breathing air at ambient pressure At depth, lungs filled with air at high pressure Ascent → ↓depth →↓total pressure. ↓ P → ↑V If holding your breath, lung volume overexpands Ascent → ↓depth →↓P N (decompress). 2 N2 tissues comes out of solution → m icrobubbles. Heyer Alveoli rupture → air bubbles into bloodsream If enough m icrobubbles form, may collect in tissues & small vessels causing bends. Bubbles may lodge in tissues & small vessels causing stroke, heart attack, etc.. 1 Diving Physiology SCUBA: self-contained underwater breathing apparatus The 3 Rules! Marine Mammal Diving Physiology Don’t panic! You brought air with you — no need to rush Stop! — Breathe! — Think! Never hold your breath! if breathing compressed air Ascend slowly! Allow your body to adapt gradually Why can they dive so much better than us? California sea lion Elephant Seals Elephant seal dives: Swim 90 km/day Underwater 90% of time Ave. dive = 24 min — max 2 hr — with 2.5 min surface intervals Dives a ve. 400+ meters — max 1500 meters Elephant seal dives: Telemetry tagged study It’s not in the lungs Lung volume ≈ 4.6% of body volume for all mammals -- including marine mammals. Marine mammals don’t rely on the air in their lungs while underwater. Heyer 2 Diving Physiology Marine mammals have 2 kinds of tricks: Use oxygen slowly. Store a lot of oxygen. Use oxygen slowly: The Diving Reflex: Heart rate slows Blood pressure decreases Peripheral circulation decreases Spleen shrinks: more blood into circulation Store a lot of oxygen: Large blood volume High concentration of red cells High concentration of hemoglobin in red cells High concentration of myoglobin in muscle Heyer Why can they dive so much better than us? Why don’t they get air embolisms? Why don’t they get the bends? Why don’t they get shallow water blackout? 3 O2 & CO2 diffuse from high concentration to low concentration. ...
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