This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: s” • Molecular formula:
n = 3–7
– C3 sugar: triose
– C5 sugar: pentose
– C6 sugar: hexose Simple sugar structures hexose sugars Bees with honey
— a mix of 2
• Glucose [a type of hexose ] is main
circulating energy source for animal cells
• Occurs in alternate linear or circular forms Heyer 7 Biological Chemistry Disaccharides Polysaccharides “double sugar”
• Cells link 2 single sugars to make 1 disaccharide • Glycogen is the main polysaccharide in animals, but plants
make many varieties ( “dietary fiber ”).
• Glycogen, starch, and cellulose are all poly-glucose.
• But very different bioactivity (and digestibility) varies because
of different chain branching. 2. Proteins, Essential to Life 2. Proteins, Essential to Life • proteios: “primary” • Structural • Important for the operation and regulation of all life processes! • Transport • “Proteins run everything!” • Movement • Communication messengers • Communication receivers • Selective cellular permeability • Defense • Enzymes – E.g., collagen & keratin
– E.g., hemoglobin
– E.g., muscle filaments & cytoskeletal elements
– E.g., insulin & growth hormone
– E.g., hormone and neural receptors
– E.g., membrane gates & pumps
– E.g., antibodies
– E.g., RNA-polymerase
– Regulate all biochemical reactions Bacterial flagellum Proteomics and Emergent Systems
• Proteomics: deducing the structure of all proteins from an organism.
• Emergent Systems Analysis: mapping all interactions
within the holistic living complex.
CELL 2. Proteins, Essential to Life
• Monomer: Amino Acid
– 20 different amino acids used to make proteins • Polymer: Polypeptide
– The precise sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide
determines the function of the protein
Outer membrane and cell surface A systems map of known interactions among 3500 proteins in a fly cell Heyer Hair made of keratin,
a structural protein 8 Biological Chemistry Proteins are made from
Amino Acids amino acid R-groups may be Amino acid structure small/simple or large/complex
tyrosine glycine Different R-groups define
different amino acids arginine
alanine • All amino acids have an amino group, a carboxyl group,
and an R group
• R groups define a specific amino acid amino acid R-groups may be
polar or amino acid R-groups may be nonpolar tyrosine tryptophan cationic anionic or a...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 09/02/2011 for the course BIOL 6B taught by Professor Heyer during the Spring '10 term at DeAnza College.
- Spring '10
- molecular biology