glycogen starch and cellulose are all poly glucose

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Unformatted text preview: s” • Molecular formula: n(CH2O) n = 3–7 – C3 sugar: triose – C5 sugar: pentose – C6 sugar: hexose Simple sugar structures hexose sugars Bees with honey — a mix of 2 monosaccharides • Glucose [a type of hexose ] is main circulating energy source for animal cells • Occurs in alternate linear or circular forms Heyer 7 Biological Chemistry Disaccharides Polysaccharides “double sugar” • Cells link 2 single sugars to make 1 disaccharide • Glycogen is the main polysaccharide in animals, but plants make many varieties ( “dietary fiber ”). • Glycogen, starch, and cellulose are all poly-glucose. • But very different bioactivity (and digestibility) varies because of different chain branching. 2. Proteins, Essential to Life 2. Proteins, Essential to Life • proteios: “primary” • Structural • Important for the operation and regulation of all life processes! • Transport • “Proteins run everything!” • Movement • Communication messengers • Communication receivers • Selective cellular permeability • Defense • Enzymes – E.g., collagen & keratin – E.g., hemoglobin – E.g., muscle filaments & cytoskeletal elements – E.g., insulin & growth hormone – E.g., hormone and neural receptors – E.g., membrane gates & pumps – E.g., antibodies – E.g., RNA-polymerase – Regulate all biochemical reactions Bacterial flagellum Proteomics and Emergent Systems • Proteomics: deducing the structure of all proteins from an organism. • Emergent Systems Analysis: mapping all interactions Fig. 1.10 within the holistic living complex. CELL 2. Proteins, Essential to Life • Monomer: Amino Acid – 20 different amino acids used to make proteins • Polymer: Polypeptide – The precise sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide determines the function of the protein Nucleus Cytoplasm Outer membrane and cell surface A systems map of known interactions among 3500 proteins in a fly cell Heyer Hair made of keratin, a structural protein 8 Biological Chemistry Proteins are made from Amino Acids amino acid R-groups may be Amino acid structure small/simple or large/complex tyrosine glycine Different R-groups define different amino acids arginine alanine • All amino acids have an amino group, a carboxyl group, and an R group • R groups define a specific amino acid amino acid R-groups may be polar or amino acid R-groups may be nonpolar tyrosine tryptophan cationic anionic or a...
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This note was uploaded on 09/02/2011 for the course BIOL 6B taught by Professor Heyer during the Spring '10 term at DeAnza College.

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