H h ch h methane lipid 1 each carbon atom forms four

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Unformatted text preview: ules and ions. – Thus if ÈH+: HC03- + H + · H2C03 · H20 + C02 ‡ ÍH+ – But if Í H+: H20 + C02 · H 2C03 · H+ + HC03‡ ÈH + • Thereby maintaining normal blood pH range of 7.35 – 7.45 – Acidosis: blood pH < 7.35 (Note: not acidic!) – Alkalosis: blood pH > 7.45 Carbon — a unique element Biological Molecules Some molecules are special in biology • H2O - small, slightly polar molecule fi “universal solvent” • Organic molecules are based on carbon. H H CH H methane lipid 1. Each carbon atom forms four bonds. 2. Carbon atoms can bond to other carbons, thus constructing long and/or branched chains of carbon — the “carbon backbone ” of the molecule. 3. Carbon can form double bonds to modify the shape or flexibility of the chains. Thus only carbon can form the complex molecules needed for complex biological functions. Functional Groups of Organic Molecules Organic Compounds (“R groups” = reactive side groups) Ketone: C=O on C within chain Aldehyde: C=O on terminal C of chain • Have a “carbon backbone” — a chain of more than one carbon. • “Organic” originally meant “made by organisms.” Alcohol Carboxylic acid – (Most still are. But some are synthetically derived from those that are.) • Heyer C.f., Fig. 4.10 6 Biological Chemistry Organic Macromolecules Forms & Features Dehydration synthesis (condensation reaction) Large macromolecules are constructed from smaller subunits. Forms Features Carbohydrates Sugars and starch Energy source; Structural units Proteins Amino acids and Proteins Enzymes; Structural units; Energy source Nucleic Acids Nucleotides, RNA, DNA Genetic instructions; Cellular energy units Lipids Fats, oils, and steroids Hydrophobic; Energy source Dehydration ( “removing water ”) synthesis: Forming polymers produces water as a byproduct. Hydrolysis (digestion reaction) Organic Macromolecules Monomers & Polymers Large macromolecules are constructed from smaller subunits. Subunit Macromolecule Carbohydrates Monosaccharide Polysaccharides Proteins Amino acid Polypeptide Nucleic Acids Nucleotides RNA, DNA Lipids Fatty acids Triglyceride, wax, + glycerol phospholipid or other carbon backbone Hydrolysis (“ water breaking ”) is opposite of dehydration synthesis. Breakdown of a polymer requires water Monosaccharides 1. Carbohydrates “single sugar” • Used for: Energy, structure • Monomer: Mono-saccharide — “one sugar” • Polymer: Poly-saccharide — “many sugar...
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