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LMembrane - Cell Membranes Cell Membranes Cell&...

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Unformatted text preview: Cell Membranes Cell Membranes Cell & organelle membranes Cell Membrane Function • Boundary between internal and external environments • Selectively permeable - controls what goes in and out of cell or organelle • Attachment to extracellular surfaces or to other cells (and organelles to cytoskeleton) • Self or species recognition • Cell to cell communication • Lipid metabolism Synthesis of membrane lipids • Phospholipid synthesis in smooth endoplasmic reticulum What does a cell need? • Selective isolation from environment (plasma membrane) • Energy (ATP) • Instructions (DNA) • Machinery to carry out instructions and regulate processes (proteins) • Compartmentalization of incompatible or specialized activities (organelles) Membrane Phospholipid Bilayer • Phospho-lipid bilayer forms the essential backbone of cellular membranes. Synthesis of membrane lipids • Distribution of membrane lipids from sER to other organelles – Three mechanisms Heyer 1 Cell Membranes Plasma Membrane Proteins Synthesis of membrane lipids • Phospholipid bilayer has proteins embedded in it. Types of membrane lipids: • Phospholipids – Major component of lipid bilayer • Cholesterol • Sphingolipids – Contributes to rigidity / flexibility of membrane – Two fatty acids condensed onto a serine, instead of a glycerol – Usually with longer fatty chains than on phospholipids – Polar head may be modified with a phosphate or carbohydrate (glycolipid ) – Rafts of sphingolipids migrate along the membrane Integral proteins : embedded into lipid bilayer Peripheral proteins : attached to integral proteins Fig. 15.10.d Transmembrane proteins Proteins can insert into lipid bilayer • Protein domains can be hydrophobic or hydrophilic Potassium channel protein Multiple hydrophobic domains contribute to intramembrane function Functions of Plasma Membrane Proteins Plasma Membrane Proteins Provide functionality to the phospholipid barrier • • • • • • • Gates Pumps Receptors Ligands Anchors Junctions Fixed enzymes • Lipophilic enzymes Heyer 2 Cell Membranes Fluid Mosaic Model of Membrane Structure – Mosaic: patchy, non-uniform distribution of proteins Fluid Mosaic Model of Membrane Structure • Different regions or sides of the same cell may have different functions – Fluid: distribution is dynamic and changeable proteins can move laterally within membrane Importing proteins to organelles Membrane-enclosed organelles import proteins by one of three mechanisms. Membrane Carbohydrates – As glycoprotein or glycolipid – Added onto extracellular surface groups All of these processes require energy. The protein remains folded during the transport steps in mechanisms 1 and 3, but usually has to be unfolded in mechanism 2. Movement of Molecules Across Membranes Passive Transport (Diffusion) • Net movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration ¸ Caused by random (Brownian) movements of molecules ¸ (Increase entropy) ¸ Each type of molecule follows its own concentration gradient ¸ At equilibrium, movement is equal in both directions Heyer 3 Cell Membranes Random molecular motion eventually results in random distribution (equilibrium) Factors that affect Rate of Diffusion • Concentration gradient – Difference in concentration between two points Gradient Equilibrium FICK’S LAW Adolf Fick, 1858 Fick’s law of diffusion of a gas across a fluid membrane: / Rate of diffusion = KA(P2–P1) D Wherein: ß K = a temperature-dependent diffusion constant. ß A = the surface area available for diffusion. ß (P2–P1) = The difference in concentration (partial pressure) of the gas across the membrane. ß D = the distance over which diffusion must take place. • • • • • Temperature (molecular movement) Permeability of the membrane / medium Available surface area of membrane Distance across which diffusion must occur Solvent state (gas > liquid > semisolid) Increased exchange rate by increased surface area • Microvilli Microvillus Plasma membrane Microfilaments (actin filaments) Intermediate filaments Figure 6.26 Concentration = Number of solutes in a given volume • Examples – – – – Moles per liter (molar = M) Grams per 100ml (g%) Nanogams per milliliter (ng/ml) Parts per thousand (ppt) • Osmolarity: the sum of all solutes in a given volume – in moles per liter (Osm) Heyer 0.25 µm Simple (non-selective) diffusion across cell membranes Nonpolar solutes dissolve through membrane • O2 • CO2 • Fat soluble hormones (steroids) • Urea • Fat soluble vitamins • Other small, fat soluble molecules 4 Cell Membranes Osmosis: simple diffusion of the solvent (water) Relative permeability of a phospholipid bilayer Osmotic pressure • Water diffuses according to its concentration gradient • ↑Osm Æ Ø[water] Ø Osm Æ↑[water] • Osmosis can generate force (osmotic pressure) Semipermeable membrane Osmolarity & Osmotic Pressure the sum of all solutes in a given volume (moles per liter) ß 1 M glucose solution = 1 Osm ß 1 M glucose/1 M fructose/1 M ribose solution = 3 Osm ß 1 M NaCl solution = 1 M Na +/ 1 M Cl– = 2 Osm • Isosmotic: two solutions with the same Osm • Hyposmotic: a solution with a lower Osm than another • Hyperosmotic: a solution with a higher Osm than another • Remember: Osmolarity & Osmotic Pressure • Osmolarity (Osm): • Osmolarity (Osm): the sum of all solutes in a given volume (moles per liter) • Osmotic Pressure (POsm): – Force generated by osmosis – Measure of the tendency to take on water by osmosis • Isotonic: two solutions with the same POsm • Hypotonic: a solution with a lower POsm than another – I.e., loses water to the other solution • Hypertonic: a solution with a higher POsm than another – I.e., takes water from the other solution ↑Osm Æ Ø[water] Ø Osm Æ↑[water] • For an isosmotic solution to be isotonic, the membrane must be equally permeable (or equally impermeable) to all solutes – All isotonic solutions are isosmotic . – But not all isosmotic solutions are isotonic. Osmosis and Water Balance Osmosis and Water Balance Prediction? ↑Osm-Ø [water] 0.05 Osm wa te r 0.03 Osm Hypotonic to “cell ” ØOsm-↑ [water] Heyer 5 Cell Membranes Osmotic Swelling • Mechanisms to resist excessive swelling in hypotonic environments Selective permeability • Except for water and small nonpolar solutes, permeability of cell membranes is selective and regulated. • Permeability determined by transporter proteins. – Channels and carriers are solute specific – If no transporter, than that solute cannot cross membrane • (Artificial membranes are only semipermeable —i.e., only discriminate based upon molecular size.) Types of cellular transport • Passive transport: driven by Brownian motion – Simple diffusion & osmosis – Facilitated diffusion (carrier mediated passive transport) • Active transport: requires chemical energy (ATP) – Carrier mediated – Can transport against concentration gradient Facilitated Diffusion Carrier mediated transport • Transporters are binding proteins \ subject to – Specificity Saturation: when all available transporter proteins are in use – Competition – Saturation Facilitated Diffusion • Carrier-mediated passive transport—“gates” & “channels” Glucose channel • May be gated – Most tissues – Opens in response to insulin • Or ungated – Brain tissue • Movement from high to low concentration, only when gate is open • Gate may open/close in response to – Chemical signal – Cell voltage – Mechanical distortion Heyer 6 Cell Membranes Facilitated Diffusion Osmosis may be both simple and facilitated Aquaporins (water channels) Aquaporins (water speed water movement. • Multidrug Transporter Mechanism Active Transport Active Transport 1. Solute binds to carrier protein 2. Binding triggers ATP hydrolysis, transfers phosphate to carrier 3. Phosphorylation produces change in shape of carrier 4. Change in shape causes carrier to move solute • Carrier mediated – “pumps” • Active: requires ATP • Can force movement against concentration gradient • Creates concentration gradient • (creates order/ decreases entropy) Difference in concentration is maintained by selective permeability of membrane • Cytosol relatively high in K+, protein, organic-phosphates • Low in Na+, Ca ++ , Cl – EXTRACELLULAR Plasma FLUID Difference in concentration is maintained by selective permeability of membrane • Cytosol relatively high in K+, protein, organic-phosphates • Low in Na+, Ca ++ , Cl – membrane Ca2+ pump ATP Mitochondrion Nucleus CYTOSOL Ca2+ pump ATP Ca2+ Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pump Key High [Ca 2+ ] Low [Ca2+ ] Figure 11.11 Heyer 7 Cell Membranes Some carriers can transport two different types of solutes simultaneously Na+/K+ ATPase: very important active transporter • Antiport – Pumps 3 Na+ out – Pumps 2 K+ in } per each ATP used • Na+/K+ ATPase used to: – Maintain ion gradients – Create electrical potential (inside of cell negatively charged relative to outside). Symport: same direction Antiport: different directions How Na+/K+ ATPase works e. K+ is released a. Na+ binds b. ATPase changes shape d. K+ binds Cells as Electrical Batteries • Electrogenic pumps: Active transport fi chemical gradients of ions fi electrical gradients. • Electrical gradient produces a membrane potential. • Inside of the cell is negative relative to the outside of the cell. c. Na+ is released Cells as Electrical Batteries Electrogenic pumps: • In animal cells, primarily the Na+/K+ pumps. • In plants, fungi, & bacteria, primarily proton pumps. – EXTRACELLULAR + ATP – FLUID + H+ H+ Proton pump H+ – + H+ H+ + – CYTOPLASM Figure 7.18 Heyer – + + Cotransport, or secondary active transport • Carrier protein does not directly use ATP • But ATP required to create the gradient by other pumps • Solute “A” transported by diffusion with the created gradient • Solute “B” moved against gradient by "piggy-backing" with solute “A” • Example: Na+ and glucose symport – Na + diffuses – Glucose actively transported H+ 8 Cell Membranes Cotransport of Na+ and glucose • Both solutes required for transport Active Transcellular Cotransport Aka , Secondary Active Transport, or Symport Bulk (vesicular) transport H+/Sucrose symport • Essential in plants – Sucrose is their primary circulating energy substrate – + H+ ATP H+ + – Proton pump H+ • Endocytosis H+ – + H+ – + Sucrose-H + cotransporter H+ Diffusion of H + H+ – Figure 7.19 – + Sucrose Bulk Transport: Endocytosis • Endocytosis: Transport of molecules or large particles into a cell using a vesicle – Phagocytosis : cell eating – Pinocytosis : nonspecific cell drinking – Receptor mediated endocytosis: transport of specific molecules (ligands ) Active Transport (Requires energy) Heyer • Exocytosis + Bulk Transport: Exocytosis • Exocytosis — excretion / secretion Food V acuole Active Transport (Requires energy) 9 Cell Membranes Cells Eat and Spit Out: Endo- and Exocytosis Cell Surface • Carbohydrates (on glycoproteins and glycolipids) give membranes “sidedness” Paramecium – Membrane-bound carbs for cell recognition – Secreted glycoproteins coat outer surface of cell White blood cell Cell Surface Junctions Cell Surface Junctions & Walls Junctions • Tight – Restrict fluid passing around cells • Anchoring – (desmosomes ) – Join adjacent cytoskeletons • Communicating (gap) – Allow passage of small molecules – Esp . in • Plants • Embryos • Electrochemically coupled cells Extracellular Matrix • Walls of secreted extracellular polysaccharide (cellulose or chitin) • Plasmodesmata form gap (communicating) junctions between cells Extracellular Matrix • Major matrix proteins: Collagen and Elastin • No walls (animal cells) • Matrix or basement membrane of secreted proteins/ glycoproteins . Heyer (A) Collagen is a triple helix formed by three extended protein chains that wrap around one another. Many rodlike collagen molecules are cross-linked together in the extracellular space to form collagen fibrils that have the tensile strength of steel. (B) Elastin polypeptide chains are crosslinked together to form rubberlike , elastic fibers. Each elastin molecule uncoils into a more extended conformation when the fiber is stretched and will recoil spontaneously as soon as the stretching force is relaxed. 10 ...
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