PQInherit - Patterns of Inheritance Heredity Patterns of...

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Unformatted text preview: Patterns of Inheritance Heredity Patterns of Inheritance z Passing on a physical characteristic to future generations – Eye color, ear shape, diseases, feather color z Mendelian Genetics Some things you probably already know about heredity vChildren resemble their parents. vChildren are not identical to their parents. Some things you already know about genes Genes v Genes are carried on chromosomes. z Discrete hereditary units that determine physical traits – Segments of DNA coding for protein z Genetics – The study of the transmission of inheritable traits v Most eukaryotes are diploid. (have 2 copies of each chromosome). v Genes are sequences of DNA that code for proteins (or at least for RNA). v Mutations happen. v There is variation in populations. v Sex makes new combinations of variations. Paired alleles Terminology z Genetic locus: site on a chromosome where a gene is located z Allele: variation of same gene carried on homologous pairs of chromosomes Heyer A a B b z Homozygous (AA or aa): paired alleles on homologous chromosomes are the same z Heterozygous (Aa): paired alleles are different 1 Patterns of Inheritance Relationship between alleles of the same gene z Dominant: the allele that is expressed in a heterozygote (produces physical appearance) z Recessive: the allele that is masked in a heterozygote Genotype: genes carried on chromosomes z Genotype: genetic make-up – Designated by letters – Dominant gene in upper case letters – Recessive gene in lower case letters AA = homozygous dominant Aa = heterozygous aa = homozygous recessive Phenotype vs. Genotype z Phenotype: physical manifestation of genotype – Brown eyes or blue eyes Gregor Mendel was the first to study genetics experimentally Peas can be mated by artificially transferring pollen z Used pea plants as a model system Hermaphroditic flowers z Developed two major genetic principles z Stamen: male parts – Principle of Segregation – Principle of Independent Assortment Heyer – Pollen: carry male gametes z Carpel: female parts Gregor Mendel, 1822 –1884 – Ovary: contains female gametes 2 Patterns of Inheritance Artificial fertilization Mendel used monohybrid crosses to study single traits z Two plants that are mated are called a cross z Resulting peas are seeds (embryos) that will mature into the next generation Various pea phenotypes z Used pure breeding plants – Plant is homozygous for all genes z Mated two individuals that differ by only one trait – E.g, purple flowers vs. white flowers Phenotype: flower color Parental generation F1: first generation offspring (first filial) F2: second generation Offspring (second filial) Genotype: PP and pp Parental cross: PP X pp Recessive phenotype reappeared in F2 generation F1: all heterozygous F2: genotypic ratio 1 PP : 2 Pp : 1 pp Heyer 3 Patterns of Inheritance Average phenotypic ratio for all traits studied: 3 to 1 What happens to paired alleles during meiosis? z AA genotype – Possible gametes made: only A z aa genotype – Possible gametes made: only a z Aa genotype – Possible gametes made: A or a z So if both flowers are Aa genotype Offspring will have a phenotypic ratio of 3 to 1 only if paired alleles assort randomly Fertilization is random z Either A or a from one parent can be fertilized by A or a from other parent z Can use a Punnett square to predict possible genotypes of offspring – 50% of sperm in pollen are A; 50% are a – 50% of ova in carpal are A; 50% are a Punnett Square Punnett Square: Aa X Aa z So if both parents are Pp genotype – 50% of sperm are P ; 50% are p – 50% of ova are P; 50% are p At any given locus, you have an equal chance of passing on mom’s allele or dad’s allele. Heyer Each allele has an equal chance of combining with either allele of other parent 4 Patterns of Inheritance Mendel’s Principle of Segregation z Pairs of genes separate during gamete formation – Each gamete carries only one allele for each gene (haploid) z Pairs of genes reform when gametes fuse during fertilization Hypothesis: Dependent assortment z Are traits of one parent always inherited together? z NO! – Reject hypothesis Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment Are all the traits inherited from one parent passed on together to subsequent generations as a set? Dihybrid cross: Tracking two characteristics at once z Parental organisms differ in two characteristics – For example, y Seed shape: round vs. wrinkled and y Seed color: yellow vs. green Actual results: all four possible phenotypes appear in F2 generation phenotypic ratio 9:3:3:1 Independent Assortment z Each different trait segregates independently during gamete formation – Seed shape and seed color are inherited separately from each other Heyer 5 Patterns of Inheritance Understanding meiosis is key to understanding genetics z Meiosis produces haploid gametes z Paired alleles segregate (separate) during meiosis z Knowing genotype of gamete allows prediction of phenotype and genotype of offspring Punnett square to predict inheritance of an autosomal dominant trait Simple dominance z Heterozygote (Aa) has the same phenotype as homozygous dominant (AA) How can you determine the genotype of an individual exhibiting the dominant phenotype? Homozygous dominant or heterozygous? z Test cross: Cross a dominant individual with a recessive individual to determine genotype of dominant parent z Recessive allele will unmask a recessive allele carried by a heterozygous parent Test Cross If AA X aa All Aa (All dominant phenotype) Heyer If Aa X aa Half Aa (dominant phenotype) Half aa (recessive phenotype) Mendel’s questions vHow can a trait “skip” a generation? (In other words, how can a trait be recessive?) 6 Patterns of Inheritance How can an allele be recessive? v Alleles at the same locus are expressed independently of each other. How can an allele be recessive? v Why does white show up only when it’s homozygous? v An allele doesn’t know if its homolog is dominant or recessive. How can an allele be recessive? How can an allele be recessive? v Why does white show up only when it’s homozygous? v If there’s no functional pigment protein, flower will be white. v Maybe white allele is a loss-of-function mutation: no pigment is created. v Could code for non-functional protein, or not code for a protein at all. How can an allele be recessive? Remember Inborn Errors of Metabolism? Example: phenylalanine metabolism v If there’s no functional pigment allele, flower will be white. v If there’s a functional pigment allele, cells will keep making pigment protein until there’s enough. v Dosage compensation: it doesn’t matter how many copies of an allele are present. Heyer Most Inborn Errors are autosomal recessive: z long as for constructing each e correctly • Instructionsatnzyme1 È phenylyketonuria [PKU] As Defective e least one allele codesnzyme in the pathway is codedlcaptonuria made. . enough functional enzyme will ifferent gene z Defective enzyme5 È a by a d be • As Defective enzymegenelbino nonfunctional Only if both aeach 6 È a you have two alleles. z usual, for lleles code for enzyme will the pathway be interrupted. 7 Patterns of Inheritance Incomplete Dominance Incomplete Dominance Most loci do not show complete dominance. “Gene dosage” AA aa Aa z Alleles blend to produce intermediate phenotype in heterozygotes Cells with two copies of the dominant allele make more gene product than do cells with only one copy. Codominance “Gene dosage” Two alleles (A or B) are both dominant over a third allele (O), but not over each other Polygenic Inheritance ¥ Many phenotypes are the product of many genes interacting. AaBbCc aabbcc Aabbcc AaBbcc AaBbCc AABbCc AABBCcAABBCC 20⁄ Fraction of progeny Inheritance of skin color in humans Figure 14.12 Heyer AaBbCc 64 15⁄ 6⁄ 64 64 1⁄ Chromosome Theory of Inheritance z Mendelian genes have specific loci on chromosomes z Chromosomes undergo segregation and independent assortment Molecular probe for a specific gene shows two distinct spots (one per chromatid ) on each of two different chromosomes (homologous pair). 64 8 Patterns of Inheritance Chromosome Theory of Inheritance P Generation z The chromosomal basis of Mendel’s laws Yellow-round seeds ( YYRR ) Y YRR r y R y Fertilization Y Gametes r – Generation time = 2 weeks; fecundity = >100 offspring All F 1 plants produce yellow-round seeds ( YyRr ) y y r r Y Y segregate R r Y R y r Metaphase I R Two equally probable Y arrangements of chromosomes r y r 1 Alleles at both loci segregate R Y y Anaphase I Y y R r 2 Each gamete gets either the R or r allele. R y y 2 Each gamete y Y Y R r Metaphase II Y Y Gametes LAW OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT Meiosis LAW OF SEGREGATION 1 The R and r alleles – N = 4 pairs of large chromosomes R R r R Y Y r 1 YR 4 3 Fertilization recombines Y r the R and r alleles at random. 9 R :3 :3 :1 gets one of four allele combinations . R 1 yR 4 1 yr 4 Fertilization among the F 1 plants y y r 1 yr 4 F2 Generation 3 Fertilization results in the 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio in the F 2 generation. Segregation, yes — but not-so-independent assortment z Monohybrid cross of w+w+ x w w – 100% of F 1 red-eyed (w +w) – Red-eyed allele must be dominant y Figure 15.4 P Generation X F1 Generation Red-eyed wild type: w+ allele Figure 15.3 Sex-linked inheritance z Drosophila has XY sex determination – XX are female – XY are male P X Generation X W+ As expected from Mendelian law of segregation z But, all white-eyed progeny are male!?! – Inheritance of phenotype is dependent upon gender! – “sex-linked” F 2 Generation Genetic sex determination X Y W+ W+ W W + + Sperm W W+ Sperm W+ W+ W+ W W W+ Genetic sex determination I. Male-determining gene on Y chromosome 3+ XX X W+ Ova z Thus, if eye-color gene (eggs) F is on the X chromosome, Generation W males are hemizygous (have only one version Ova F (eggs) of that gene) and cannot Generation W ever be heterozygous W z The first solid evidence indicating that a specific gene is associated with a specific chromosome 2 – F2 red-eyed & white eyed (3:1) y z Common allele in wild population: “wild type” (+). z Spontaneous or experimentally induced variant: White-eyed “mutant”. mutant: w allele z Genes typically named for the mutant phenotype. 1 So far so good z Next, F1 x F1 Chromosome Theory of Inheritance z T.H. Morgan and the “Fly Room” ~ early 1900s z Fruit-fly, Drosophila melanogaster r Meiosis F1 Generation Figure 15.2 Green-wrinkled seeds ( yyrr) y 3+ XY I. Male-determining gene on Y chromosome Parents 44 + XY 44 + XX (a) The X –Y system II. Female-determining gene on W chromosome III. Dose-dependent female-determining gene on X chromosome 22 + X Sperm 44 + XX (c) The Z –W system 22 + XX 22 + X 22 + Y 22 + X Ova 76 + ZZ 76 + ZW 16 (Diploid) 16 (Haploid) Zygotes (offspring) 44 + XY (a) The X-Y system in humans Figure 15.9 v X chromosome: 153 Mbp , 900-1200 genes v Y chromosome: 23 Mbp , 78 genes (b) The X –0 system Heyer (d) The haplo -diploid system Figure 15.9 9 Patterns of Inheritance Inheritance of sex-linked genes Sex-linked genes z Genes carried on sex chromosomes, but not related to sex determination z X-linked traits are expressed in males with only 1 gene ( XrY) z Females must be homozygous recessive for phenotype ( XrXr) Recessive disorders on human X-linked genes z Colorblindness: lacking receptors in retina that detect a particular color z Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD): progressive muscle degeneration z Hemophilia: lacking blood clotting factors X inactivation in Female Mammals z In mammalian females one of the two X chromosomes in each cell is randomly inactivated during embryonic development – So both males and females have only one functional X per cell z If a female is heterozygous for a particular gene located on the X chromosome, she will be a mosaic for that character Two cell populations in adult cat: Active X Early heterozygous embryo: X chromosomes Cell division Inactive X and X chromosome Inactive X inactivation Orange fur Black fur Allele for Active X black fur “Tortoise-shell ” mosaic coloration — only occurs in f emale cats female Allele for orange fur Mendelian vs. chromosomal inheritance z Independent assortment of chromosomes explains independent assortment of genes on separate chromosomes But … z Each chromosomes has several hundred gene loci! z So, how do you get independent assortment of genes occurring on the same chromosome? z Sometimes you do, sometimes you don’t! – “linked genes” Heyer Figure 15.11 Linked genes Morgan’s Fly Room continues … zDihybrid cross (b+b+ vg+vg+) x (bb vgvg) y Gray body ( b+b+) x black body ( bb) y Normal wings (vg+vg+) x vestigial wings ( vg vg) P Generation (homozygous) Wild type (gray body, normal wings) b+ b+ vg+ vg+ F1 dihybrid (wild type) (gray body, normal wings) x Double mutant (black body, vestigial wings) b b vg vg b+ b vg+ vg – All F1 gray body/normal wings (b+b vg+vg) y As expected from Mendelian prediction Figure 15.5 10 Patterns of Inheritance Linked genes Linked genes z Dihybrid cross (b+b+ vg+vg+) x (bb vgvg) z Dihybrid cross (b+b+ vg+vg+) x (b b vg vg) – All F1 gray body/normal wings ( b+b vg +vg) – All F1 gray body/normal wings ( b+b vg +vg) zNow, perform test cross of F1 y (b+b vg +vg ) x (bb vgvg ) – Mendelian prediction: y y y y 25% gray body/normal wings ( b+b vg +vg) 25% gray body/vestigial wings ( b+b vgvg ) 25% black body/normal wings ( bb vg +vg) 25% black body/vestigial wings ( bb vgvg) P Generation (homozygous) Wild type x Double mutant (gray body, (black body, normal wings) vestigial wings) b+ b+ vg+ vg+ F1 dihybrid Double mutant TESTCROSS (wild type) (black body, x (gray body, vestigial wings) normal wings) b+ b vg+ vg Double mutant (black body, vestigial wings) y (b+b vg +vg ) x (b b vg vg ) – Mendelian prediction: y y y y b b vg vg Double mutant (black body, vestigial wings) b b vg vg meiosis meiosis zNow, perform test cross of F1 b vg – Actual outcome (out of 2,300 progeny): b vg+ b vg b+b+ vg+vg +25% b+b+ vg+vg +25% Morgan determined that z Genes that are close together on the same chromosome are linked and do not assort independently z Unlinked genes are either on separate chromosomes or are far apart on the same chromosome and assort independently The farther apart, the more likely they will be inherited independently Parents in testcross X Recombination & segregation of linked loci Gray body, normal wings (F1 dihybrid) b+ b vg + vg b b vg vg b+ b vg vgb b vg + vg Parental-type offspring b+ Meiosis I: Crossing over between b and vg loci produces new allele combinations. b vg (391/2300)100 = 17% vg b b b vg b vg Recombinant chromosome Gametes Sperm b+vg + b vg b+ vg b+ vg + b vg 965 Wild type (gray-normal) b + v g+ b vg b vg Linkage map of a chromosome z The map of the relative position of loci on a chromosome based upon recombination frequencies between those loci z Map units are expressed as centimorgans (cM) b vg 944 Blackvestigial b v g+ b vg b vg b vg + Ova 185 Blacknormal b v g+ b vg Recombinant offspring Figure 15.6 Linkage map of a chromosome ß But since crossing-over is not purely random, there is considerable intra-species and interspecies variation ß If linkage distance = 50 cM , then there is a 50:50 chance of a crossover. I Y II Recombination frequencies b+ vg 206 Grayvestigial b + v g+ ß In humans, I cM ≈ I million bp ß I centimorgan = 1% crossover frequency X ß So any loci ≥ 50 cM apart are segregated and inherited independently (as if on separate chromosomes) IV III Figure 15.7 9.5% Mutant phenotypes 17% Short aristae Black body vg FOR EXAMPLE : On Drosophila chromosome II there occurs crossovers 9% of the time between the b locus and the cn locus during meiosis and gametogenesis; and there occur crossovers 9.5% of the time between the cn locus and the vg locus. Hence b and cn are 9 cM apart; and cn and vg are 9.5 cM apart. NOTE : The distance between b and vg is underestimated by crossover frequency. The farther apart two loci are, the more likely that a second crossover will negate the first one. Heyer b vg+ b vg Parental-type offspring Chromosome vg vg Meiosis I and II: Even if crossing over occurs, no new allele combinations are produced. Ova = 17 “linkage units ” apart on chromosome II Black body, vestigial wings (double mutant) b vg Replication of chromosomes b vg Meiosis II: Segregation of chromatids produces recombinant gametes with the new allele combinations. So for w & vg loci or cn b vg ¥ vg b+ vg + vg b b vg vg + b vg b Figure 15.5 Testcross parents b+ vg + b Recombinant ( nonparental -type) offspring Replication of chromosomes Sperm 9% 185 Blacknormal Sperm — Usually inherited as a unit Testcross offspring Most offspring b vg+ 206 Grayvestigial b vg b vg b+ b vg b+ vg b vg = (# recombinations /total # progeny) x100 The closer the loci are to each other, the less likely a crossing-over event will occur between them — “tightly linked ” b+ vg + b+vg + 965 944 Wild type Black(gray-normal) vestigial z Recombination frequency Crossing-over can cause loci on the same chromosome to be segregated independently in meiosis – RESULTS y Parental phenotypes preferentially inherited y b and vg genes are linked Linked genes – b b vg vg Double mutant (black body, vestigial wings) b b vg vg – Conclusions: 25% b+b+ vg+vg + Figure 15.5 z Double mutant (black body, vestigial wings) b+ b vg+ vg y 42% gray body/normal wings ( b+b vg +vg) y 9% gray body/vestigial wings ( b+b vg vg) y 8% black body/normal wings ( b b vg +vg) y 41% black body/vestigial wings ( b b vg vg) b+ vg+ b+b+ vg+vg + 25% b+ vg 25% gray body/normal wings ( b+b vg +vg) 25% gray body/vestigial wings ( b+b vg vg ) 25% black body/normal wings ( b b vg +vg ) 25% black body/vestigial wings ( b b vg vg) P Generation (homozygous) Wild type x Double mutant (gray body, (black body, normal wings) vestigial wings) b+ b+ vg+ vg+ F1 dihybrid Double mutant TESTCROSS (wild type) (black body, x (gray body, vestigial wings) normal wings) 0 Cinnabar Vestigial Brown eyes wings eyes 48.5 57.5 67.0 104.5 Drosophila chromosome II Long aristae (appendages on head) Gray body Red eyes Normal wings Wild-type phenotypes Red eyes Figure 15.8 11 Patterns of Inheritance Some inheritance patterns seem to follow neither Mendelian nor chromosomal models q q q q q Epistasis Pleiotropy Genomic imprinting Extra-nuclear genes Environmentally-restricted expression Epistasis q The expression or nonexpression of the epistatic gene suppresses the expression of another gene q E.g., … ß For the mouse coat-color gene, black (B) is dominant over brown (b). ß But if the pigmentproduction gene is homozygous recessive (cc), no pigment is produced and coat color is white, no matter what the genotype of the coatcolor gene is! Figure 14.11 Pleiotropy Genomic imprinting Normal Igf2 allele q A gene with pleiotropic expression affects multiple phenotypic characteristics. q Some of these effects may epistatically modify other gene expression Codominance : heterozygotes produce two kinds of hemoglobin One in ten African-Americans carries the sickle-cell trait (heterozygous) One in four-hundred has sickle-cell disease (homozygous) Paternal Maternal Mutant lgf2 allele Wild-type mouse (normal size) Mutant lgf2 allele Paternal Maternal Dwarf mouse Normal Igf2 allele with imprint Figure 15.17 When a normal Igf2 allele is inherited from the father, heterozygous mice grow to normal size. But when a mutant allele is inherited from the father, heterozygous mice have the dwarf phenotype. Environmentally-restricted expression Extra-nuclear genes q Environmental determination of phenotype and gene expression z Human mitochondrial DNA contains 37 genes 1. Temperature-dependent melanin production in bunnies 2. Soil-pH-dependent pigmentation in hydrangea flowers 3. Photoperiod-dependent coloration in arctic foxes z Bryophyte chloroplast DNA contains 128 genes z The inheritance of traits controlled by genes present in the chloroplasts or mitochondria usually depends solely on the maternal parent because the zygote ’s cytoplasm comes from the egg z The “silencing” of certain genes that are “stamped” with an imprint during gamete production z The phenotypic effects of certain genes depend on which allele is inherited from the mother and which is inherited from the father Figure 15.18 ß Yellow-blotch leaf phenotype inherited directly from maternal lineage ß Similarly, mitochondrial myopathy in humans inherited from mother Heyer 12 ...
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