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R1CellRespire - Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration...

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Cellular Respiration Heyer 1 Metabolic Pathways: a summary Cellular Cellular Respiration & Metabolism Metabolism Metabolism Bioenergetics Flow of energy in living systems obeys: • 1 st law of thermodynamics: Energy can be transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed. • 2 nd law of thermodynamics: Energy transformations increase entropy (degree of disorganization of a system). Only free energy (energy in organized state) can be used to do work. Systems tend to go from states of higher free energy to states of lower free energy. Coupled Reactions: Bioenergetics Energy transfer from one molecule to another couples chemical reactions Exergonic reaction : reaction releases energy Endergonic reaction : reaction requires energy Coupled bioenergetic reactions : the energy released by the exergonic reaction is used to power the endergonic reaction. Coupled Pathways : Bioenergetics Energy transfer from one metabolic pathway to another by means of ATP. Catabolic pathway (catabolism) : breaking down of macromolecules. Releases energy which may be used to produce ATP. Anabolic pathway (anabolism) : building up of macromolecules. Requires energy from ATP. Metabolism : the balance of catabolism and anabolism in the body. Cellular Respiration : ATP is the cell’s rechargable battery Breaking down complex glucose molecule releases energy. That energy is used to convert ADP into ATP. ADP + P + energy —› ATP Energy is released as ATP breaks down into ADP and AMP. ATP —› energy + ADP + P
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Cellular Respiration Heyer 2 Forward reaction is exergonic Back reaction is endergonic Cells use ATP by breaking phosphate bond and transferring energy to other compounds Cells make ATP by transferring energy from other compounds to form phosphate bond Coupled Metabolic Pathways: via ATP Cellular Metabolism Cellular Respiration provides ATP Cellular “Work” requires ATP
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