BIOLOGY 11 – PRE-LAB EXERCISE Name: Answer Key 13-14 5 1. Examine Figure 13.4 in the Lab Manual . a. What do “anterior” and “posterior” mean? anterior: front side; posterior: back side b. What are phalanges? c. Locate the tibia, sternum, scapula, carpals, cranium, and coccyx. Which of these are part of the axial skeleton and which are part of the appendicular skeleton? axial: sternum, cranium, and coccyx appendicular: tibia, scapula, carpals 2. What are “antagonistic pairs of muscles”? Give an example. Two muscles that cause the same bone to move in opposite directions. E.g., biceps brachii vs. triceps brachii 3. Define and distinguish flexion and extension movements. Give an example of each. Flexion: movement that decreases the joint angle. E.g., biceps brachii flexes the forearm in toward the upper arm. Extension: movement that increases the joint angle.
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