Lecture Starts HERE:
There are two systematic social-level biases involved in skewing the directions in
which these pseudo results are produced.
Research results can be falsified or invented.
Individual researchers, surgical organizations, and pharmaceutical (or other) companies
have an incentive to find "positive" results and to deny negative effects of drugs or other
For individual scientists, careers require producing positive results.
companies, results on drugs or other commodities must show both positive benefits and
negligible adverse effects.
This results in
1. Publishing made-up or manipulated data
a. Research Fraud Exists, and Sometimes Relates to Important Cases
Jon Sudbo, a researcher at Norway's Comprehensive Cancer Center, published
articles in the
(one of the two most prestigious British medical journals) and the
New England Journal of Medicine
Journal of Clinical Oncology
, showing that
ibuprofen lowered the risk of oral cancer but raised the risk of dying from heart disease.
He has been found to have fabricated the studies completely, making up the
As the editor of the
et said, he was a "very clever fabricator," saying he
"fooled his colleagues, he fooled his
, he fooled his funding agency, he fooled the
"In a survey published by the journal
, about 1.5 percent of 3,247 researchers who
responded admitted to falsification or plagiarism."
Alexis Black, "Fraud in medical research: A frightening, all-too-common trend on
the rise," Tuesday, April 18, 2006 by: Alexis Black,
Research Fraud is Difficult to Find and Prosecute
Black notes that "allegations of misconduct by researchers in the
record highs in 2004, with the department of Health and Human Services receiving 274