risk factors of oa

risk factors of oa - REVIEW...

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REVIEW www.nature.com/clinicalpractice/rheum Risk factors and prognostic factors of hip and knee osteoarthritis Sita MA Bierma-Zeinstra* and Bart W Koes INTRODUCTION Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease, frequently experienced by middle-aged and older people. 1 OA is characterized by joint pain and dysfunction, with the hip and knees being the most symptomatic areas. The total economic burden of arthritis is currently estimated to be 1–2.5% of the gross national product of Western countries, and OA accounts for most of this burden. 2 As a greater part of the popula- tion live longer, the prevalence of OA is expected to increase substantially; in Western countries, the prevalence of OA is expected to increase by about 40% in the coming 20 years, making OA the fourth most common cause of disability. 3,4 A clear insight into the risk factors for the develop- ment of OA and of risk factors for fast progres- sion is desirable. This might lead to the discovery of strategies for primary prevention of OA or secondary prevention of disease progression. Many epidemiologic studies on risk factors, and, to a lesser degree, on prognostic factors, for hip and knee OA have been conducted; however, not all these studies have equal validity when the study design, measurements taken, or analyses performed are considered. Systematic reviews of determinants of the development and progres- sion of OA have, therefore, been conducted to summarize scientific evidence, while taking into account validity and including all available evidence and excluding any coincidental effects. In this Review, we summarize the evidence available from the systematic reviews on deter- minants of development and progression of hip and knee OA. When applicable, informa- tion from publications based on data from the Rotterdam study 5 (open population aged 55 years and older) on the issues summarized in the systematic reviews is also discussed. RISK FACTORS FOR OA Hip OA There have been several systematic reviews on the risk factors for hip OA. 6–13 The systematic reviews by Lievense et al. 6–9 included studies published Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease that most commonly affects middle- aged and elderly people. As the prevalence of OA is expected to increase substantially in the future, a clearer insight into the risk factors for disease development and disease in progression is desirable. In this Review, we summarize the evidence available from systematic reviews regarding the determinants of the development and progression of hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA). There is moderate to strong evidence that physical workload (in hip and knee OA), high-intensity sporting activities (in hip OA), and being overweight (in clinical hip OA) are risk factors for OA. There is also moderate to strong evidence that having OA and a high
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This note was uploaded on 09/05/2011 for the course COMM 101 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Boise State.

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risk factors of oa - REVIEW...

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