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Chapter 11 Notes - Out-Group – any group with which an...

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Chapter 11 Notes Prosocial Behavior – any act performed with the goal of benefiting another person. Altruism – the desire to help another person even if it involves a cost to the helper. Kin Selection – the idea that behaviors that help a genetic relative are favored by natural selection. Norm of Reciprocity – the expectation that helping others will increase the likelihood that they will help us in the future. Empathy – the ability to put oneself in the shoes of another person and to experience events and emotions the way that person experiences them. Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis – the idea that when we feel empathy for a person, we will attempt to help that person purely for altruistic reasons, regardless of what we have to gain. Altruistic Personality – the qualities that cause an individual to help others in a wide variety of situations. In-Group – the group with which an individual identifies as a member.
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Unformatted text preview: Out-Group – any group with which an individual does not identify. Negative-State Relief Hypothesis – the idea that people help in order to alleviate their own sadness and distress. Urban Overload Hypothesis – the theory that people living in cities are constantly being bombarded with stimulation and that they keep to themselves to avoid being overwhelmed by it. Bystander Effect – the finding that the greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help. Pluralistic Ignorance – bystanders’ assuming that nothing is wrong in an emergency because no one else looks concerned. Diffusion of Responsibility – the phenomenon whereby each bystander’s sense of responsibility to help decreases as the number of witnesses increases....
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