mat55-counting - Lecture notes on counting, used in CS 70...

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Lecture notes on counting, used in CS 70 Fall 2001 (Paraphrased from Prof. Demmel’s Math 55 Lecture notes #15, #17) Review Counting Principles 1) The Sum Rule: If S1 and S2 are disjoint sets, then the number of members of S1 U S2 is |S1 U S2| = |S1| + |S2| 2) Inclusion-Exclusion Principle: If S1 and S2 are arbitrary sets, then |S1 U S2| = |S1| + |S2| - |S1 inter S2| 3) The Product Rule: If S1 and S2 are sets, and S1 x S2 ={(s1,s2) : s1 in S1 and s2 in S2} is the Cartesian product of S1 and S2, then |S1 x S2| = |S1| x |S2| If S1, S2, . .. , Sk are sets, S1 x S2 x . .. Sk the Cartesian product, then |S1 x . .. x Sk| = |S1| x . .. x |Sk| 4) Tree diagrams EX: How many bit strings of length 4 without two consecutive zeros? Ans: 8; Enumerate all possibilities in a tree: Legal bit strings 0 - 1 0101 / / 0 0110 0 - 1 - 1 - 1 0111 / / 0 1010 / 0 - 1 - 1 1011 / / 0 - 1 1101 / / / / 0 1110 x -----1 - 1 - 1 - 1 1111 Bit # 1 2 3 4 Tree Diagrams (formally) Draw a tree where the children of each node represent all the possible values of the next entry EX: How many 2-out-of-3 game playoffs are there? Ans: 6 Winner sequence Winner b bb b / / b bab b b - a - a baa a / / b abb b / / b - a aba a x -- a - a aa a (5) Pigeonhole Principle: If k+1 or more objects (pigeons) are placed in k boxes (holes), then at least one box contains 2 or more objects. (proof by contradition: if each box had at most one object, there would only be k or fewer objects, a contradiction) EX: In any group of 27 English words, at 2 begin with the same letter, since there are only 26 letters.
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7) Permuations DEF: a permutation of a set S of n distinct objects is an ordered list of these objects DEF: an r-permutation is an ordered list of r elements of S
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mat55-counting - Lecture notes on counting, used in CS 70...

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