chap16 - Chap 16 FOOD 30% of US adults are overweight, Our...

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1 Chap 16 FOOD 30% of US adults are overweight, Our diet has been linked to five of the ten leading causes of death in the US. . 1. Carbohydrates, A) sugars, sucrose is table sugar, from sugar cane or sugar beets. Fructose is sweeter and use it to provide less calories but with the same sweetness. High fructose corn syrup is glucose treated with enzymes to give fructose. In US 1968 to now sugar intake went from 11 kg/year to over 70 kg/year. Sucrose + H 2 0 glucose + fructose Lactose + H 2 0 glucose + galactose b) complex carbohydrates- bread, flour, cereals, pasta should be 65-80% of diet intake carbohydrates can be stored as glycogen, excess is converted to fat. c) artificial sweetners. Want something sweet without calories. In 1977 saccharin was shown to cause bladder cancer in animals. However Congress went ahead with it. 1981 the FDA approved aspartame. 160 times sweeter than saccharin. difficult to predict taste. S NH O O O saccharin H 2 N H C CH 2 C O OCH 3 H C CH 2 N H C O COOH aspartame
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2 2. Fats, high energy foods no more than 30% of caloric intake from fat. Fats come from triglycerides. Used to coat vital organs so they do not become damaged. Stored under skin to help insulate against temp. changes. Dietary fat and cholesterol have been linked to arteriosclerosis –hardening of the arteries. Give heart attack or stroke. Artery clogging plaque is high in cholesterol. Water insoluble, so measure LDL and HDL. HDL are the only ones that transport cholesterol to ,the liver for processing and excretion. Found by studying Greenlanders. Fish oils also might help prevent heart disease. Effect caused by poly unsaturated fatty acids. 3. Proteins, essential amino acids- the eight amino acids the body cannot synthesize. Each dietary food is usually lacking in a few specific amino acids. Corn lacks tryptophan and lysine. Most animal sources have plenty of amino acids, milk , fish , eggs, cheese. 4. Minerals- inorganic components represent 4% of the bodies weight. iodine is important to for the thyroid and to stop goiter. KI is added to table salt. Iron for hemoglobin. Calcium and phosphorus for bones and teeth. Also P for to store energy. 5. Vitamins specific organic compounds that are required in the diet to prevent specific diseases.
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chap16 - Chap 16 FOOD 30% of US adults are overweight, Our...

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