Chem30a - ACIDS and BASES 1. a) Definition -Latin (acidus)...

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1 ACIDS and BASES 1. a) Definition -Latin (acidus) = sour, vinegar and lemons. Arrhenius definition – Acid produces H + HX H + (aq) + X - (aq) HBr H + (aq) + Br - (aq) b) Nomenclature- Prefix Suffix add acid simple anions HX hydro- -ic acid (binary) Polyatomic anions base -ate -ic acid (-1 oxygen) -ite -ous acid Ex. HCl hydrochloric acid HI hydroiodic acid SO 4 2- sulfate H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid NO 3 - nitrate HNO 3 nitric acid PO 4 3- phosphate H 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid SO 3 2- sulfite H 2 SO 3 sulfurous acid NO 2 - nitrite HNO 3 nitrous acid PO 3 3- phosphite H 3 PO 3 phosphorous acid 2. A) Bases- are ionic compounds that separate to give a metal ion and hydroxide ions. (-OH) KOH K + (aq) + OH - (aq) B) Nomenclature metal + hydroxide NaOH sodium hydroxide KOH potassium hydroxide
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2 3. Further defining acids and bases. Bronsted-Lowry Acid and bases. Acid- donates a proton ( H + ) base- accepts a proton ( H + ) hydronium ion = H 3 O + Base Acid Acid Base NaOH + H 2 O H 2 O + OH - (aq) + Na + (aq) H 2 O + CN - HCN + OH - base acid acid base H 2 O + CH 3 COOH CH 3 COO - + H 3 O + base acid acid base 4. Strengths of Acids and Bases H O H + H + H O H H + H 2 O + HBr H 3 O + + Br - base acid acid base H N H + H 2 O H N H H + H H OH -
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Chem30a - ACIDS and BASES 1. a) Definition -Latin (acidus)...

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