chapter1measurementsrevised

chapter1measurementsrevised - Measurements and Units 1....

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1 Measurements and Units 1. What is a science- difficult to define. Science is an accumulation of knowledge about our physical world based on observations. Scientific observation must be reproducible. a. Hypothesis.- a guess that explains observable data that can be tested. b. Scientific Laws- are universal descriptions of observable data that are true everywhere in the universe under the stated conditions. c. Scientific theory- the best detailed explanation that can predict observable outcomes. Are tentative and open to revisions. d. Scientific models- tangible items or pictures to represent invisible processes. Science is limited by the number of variables in the system. (overhead) Critical thinking applied to science- a. Falsifiability- evidence can be applied to prove the theory false. b. Logic- any argument offered as evidence in support of any claim must be sound. An argument is sound if its conclusion follows inevitably from its premises and if its premises are true. c. Replicability- evidence must be replicable in subsequent experiments or trials. d. Sufficiency- 1. burden of proof is on the claimant. 2. extraordinary claims demand extraordinary evidence. 3. evidence based on authority and/or testimony is never adequate.
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2. Definition-Chemistry is the study of all matter and the changes it undergoes, and the energy changes associated with those changes. Dictated by the size of the system. Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Energy is the ability to do work. Work = force x distance 1. Matter- three states a. Solid- definite shape and volume b. liquid- definite volume but not shape c. Gas- no definite shape or volume 2. Chemical changes. a) Physical change- appearance is changed but chemical make up is still the same. H 2 O (g) H 2 O (l) Distillation, breaking glass, b)Chemical change- rearrangement of the atoms. signs of a chemical change- color, temperature, bubbles, formation of a solid (precipitation) C + O 2 CO 2 CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O ex. Rust, burning, baking soda fizzing in the presence of vinegar intensive properties-independent of quantity, EX density, melting point extensive properties- depends on quantity of the substance. Mass, volume 3. Classification of matter. A. Pure substance- has one component
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chapter1measurementsrevised - Measurements and Units 1....

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