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Nucleic Acids - Chap 18 Nucleic Acids DNA was discovered in...

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1 Chap 18 Nucleic Acids DNA was discovered in 1869 and then in 1953 its structure was elucidated. Watson and Crick. Humans have 46 chromosomes. 23 from each parent. chromosome 22 was the first to be sequenced has 34,491,000 bases, 97% have been identified. 542 genes code for proteins, 325 for unidentified proteins. 1.Nucleotide- ‘tide to phosphate” nucleoside DNA-deoxyribonucleic acid CH 2 O P O- O- O base sugar base sugar HO N N N N NH 2 O OH OH H H H H -O N N N N NH 2 O OH OH H H H H O P O- O nucleoside nucleotide deoxyadenosine monophosphate (dAMP)
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2 a) Sugar- b) Base- derived from pyrimidines or purine (bi-cyclic system) 2. Nucleic Acids- link hydroxyl group on the 3’ C of the sugar to the phosphate at the 5’ ` HOH 2 C OH H OH OH O ribose- RNA HOH 2 C OH OH O deoxyribose- DNA N N N H N NH 2 adenine (A) NH N N H N O NH 2 guanine (G) N NH H 2 N O cytosine (C) H N NH O O uracil (RNA only) H N NH O O thymine (DNA only) H 3 C phosphate sugar base phosphate sugar base phosphate sugar base nucleotide backbone
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3 position of the next sugar. 5’ b. Base pairs are coupled by hydrogen bonding. Complementary base pairs – forms a double alpha-helix (10 base pairs per turn) A –T G-C C - A 3. Replication- every body cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. Use base pair coupling.
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