organic notes revised

organic notes revised - Chem 30B Organic Chem 1 Intro...

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1 Chem 30B Organic Chem 1. Intro Organic Chem Definition- organic chemistry used to be the study of molecules that were produced from living organisms. This changed when urea was synthesized. NH 4 CNO H 2 N C O NH 2 urea Organic chemistry refers to compounds that are mostly composed of C and H and sometimes O, N, S, P and the halogens (7a). Mostly covalent bonds. Inorganic- mostly ionic bonds (metal + non-metal) a salt Properties of Organic and inorganic compounds- Inorganic organic Melting point high low Electrolyte yes no Carbon is special because it can make 4 bonds. C C H H H H C H H H H CH 4 Lewis Dot Complete structural formula conensed Can have multiple bonds. Alkanes- single bonds Alkenes –double bonds alkynes- triple bonds 2. Alkanes - carbon single bonds A) Properties of Alkanes- all single bonds.
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2 1-4 C gases fules 5-17 liquids octane 18 more waxy solids Main rxn of alkanes- combustion CxHyOz + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 + 5O 2 3 CO 2 + 4H 2 O + heat B) Drawing organic molecules- 1) All C have their octet fulfilled unless otherwise specified. 2) Junctions of line represent a C. 3) The valences of C is filled in with H unless otherwise specified. 4) All other atoms and Hydrogens are shown. Ex. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 C C C C H H H H H H H H H H CH 3 CH 2 CHCH 3 CH 2 H 2 C OH OH N C) Structural Isomers- same molecular formula but different atom-atom connectivity. Have to break bonds to intro-convert. Have different physical properties. I.e. density, solubility… Ex. C 4 H 10 Ex. C 6 H 14
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3 Ex. C 5 H 10 D) Nomenclature- a) straight chains- get Greek prefix except for 1-4 carbons. Methane, ethane, propane, butane Prefix- -suffix Alkanes –ane alkenes –ene alkynes -yne 5 pent- 6 hex- 7 hept- 8 oct- pentane octane b) General rules for Nomenclature 1. Find longest unbranched chain or chain of carbons and name it the parent chain. 2. Number the carbon atoms in the parent chain from the end nearest the first alkyl group or functional group. 3.
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organic notes revised - Chem 30B Organic Chem 1 Intro...

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