Chem12a - Chapter 1 1. Drawing Organic structures-...

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1 Chapter 1 1. Drawing Organic structures- Structural formulas Every junction is a C and implies fulfilled octet, fill in with H. Write H on other atoms besides C. 2. Formal Charges- a) Start with Lewis dot structures, (not for ionic) H 2 O- b. Calculate Formal Charges- (formal charges must add up to the total charge of the molecule) Formal Charge = (group number) – (e’ around that element) 1) H 2 O - calculate O = (6) – (6) = 0 H O H : NO 2 - O N O 1- NO 2 - = NO 2 - H H H H H H H H H OH NH 2
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2) NO 2 - N = (5) – (5) = 0 O 1 = (6) - (6) = 0 O 2 = (6) - (7) = -1 Total = -1 EX 1-1. SO 2 = 18 e’ total S = (6) – (5) = +1 O 1 = (6) - (7) = 0 O 2 = (6) - (6) = -1 Total = 0 3. Resonance Hybrids- Description Donkey, horse --- mule (hybrid) real Resonance Structures- 1) Involve only the movement of e’ 2) All resonance forms do not have to be equal. 3) Atom connectivity remains the same. (no sigma bonds only pie bonds) 4) More resonance forms add stability. Length of C-O single 1.35 A, H C O - O
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Chem12a - Chapter 1 1. Drawing Organic structures-...

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