chap3chem12a

chap3chem12a - H anti 3 *show energy diagram. Lowest energy...

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1 Chap 3 Alkanes 1. Physical properties- A) Solubility- non-polar solvents. B) Boiling points- low boiling point due to induced dipole IMF. Larger the size, increase in IMF, increase in B.P. More branching, lower B.P. Decrease surface area contact and thus lower induced dipole effect. bp = 60 c bp = 50 c 2. Reactions of Alkanes- A) Combustion- organic molecule CxHyOz + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + Heat Organic molecule (C,H,O) 2CH 3 CH 3 + 7O 2 4CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Heat B) Halogenation- limited use, difficult to control. CH 4 + Cl 2 CH 3 Cl + CH 2 Cl 2 + CHCl 3 + CCl 4 + HCl heat or light 3. Conformations of Alkanes-
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2 Conformation- different arrangement in space formed by rotation of a single bond. C C H H H H H H 1 2 H H H H H H Newman projection H H 3 C NH 2 H Newman projection HO NH 2 1 2 OH H 3 C Dihedral Angle- (show 120, 180) H H H H H H O 0 H H H H H H 6O 0 eclipsed staggered show potential energy diagram. Based on steric hindrance- repulsion of e’ clouds. Butane- O 0 6O 0 1 2 H H H H 3 C H CH 3 total eclipsed H CH 3 H H CH 3 H gauche 120 0 H CH 3 H H 3 C H H eclipsed 18O 0 CH 3 H H H CH 3
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Unformatted text preview: H anti 3 *show energy diagram. Lowest energy is gauche than anti. Geometric isomers of alkenes- cannot introconvert without breaking bonds. 1) Alkenes, alkynes H CH 3 H H 3 C break bonds CH 3 H H H 3 C 2) Rings of 1-5 in carbons break bonds CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 six membered rings- have two major conformations a) chair- more stable. Heq Hax Hax Heq b) boat- has eclipsed so is less stable. Mono-substitued cyclohexanes CH 3 eq Hax CH 3 H eq CH 3 ax 4 Cis and trans cyclohexane-trans cis 1,2 substitution 1,3 substitution trans cis cis 1,2 ax-eq eq-ax cis 1,3 ax-ax eq-eq trans 1,2 ax-ax eq-eq trans 1,3 ax-eq eq-ax For fused ring systems the trans di-axial junction is the most stable due to the alkyl groups able to be all eq. Trans decalin is a more stable. H H H H decalin...
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This note was uploaded on 09/02/2011 for the course CHEM 12a taught by Professor Harrison during the Spring '11 term at West Valley.

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chap3chem12a - H anti 3 *show energy diagram. Lowest energy...

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