Lecture 1

Lecture 1 - BILD 3 Organismic and Evolutionary Biology...

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BILD 3 – Organismic and Evolutionary Biology Lecture 1 Evolution - Scientific Definition: A change in genetic composition of a population over generations o Individuals do not evolve History of evolutionary thought - Earliest docu m ent ation of evolution by n atural selection: In the writings of Aristotle on Empedocles 1. First Stage: Typological Thinking - Aristotle o Historia animalium – species as types, beh avior is instinctual - Species are immutable and within sp ecies variation is n egligible - Variation results from mistakes(Plato's e ss entialism) 2. Second Stage: Theory of Special Creation (16 th - 19 th Century) - Species were created independently of each other - Species do not change over time o No evolution o No extinction - Species were created recently Challenges to Special Creation during the Enlightenment (18 th Century) - During the Enlighten m ent: o Transition from m a n's inability to progress → m a n controls his own life Changed the thoughts of the scholars - Darwin's influences: o Classification: Carolus Linnaeus Founder of taxonomy, classifying life's diversity into a nested system of relationships or affinities(e.g. kingdom, class, order, family) Grouped species based on their shared physical characteristics, not by common ancestors since he is an anti-evolutionist o Paleontology(study of prehistoric life): Georges Cuvier By studying layers of fossils, we can know about the history of life and this helped to lay the groundwork for Darwin's ideas Georges Cuvier: Championed the theory of extinction Anti-evolutionist Believed in multiple creation events o Geology: James Hutton and Charles Lyell Gradualism : Big changes can occur through gradual processes
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Conversed to catastrophism: Rivers do not appear in just one day Uniformitarianism : Same geologic processes operated in past as operate today Both requires that earth is substantially older than the biblical account o Evolution: Jean B. Lamarck Inheritance of acquired characteristics Use/Disuse: Appendages, organs can change with use, deteriorate with disuse Changes are inherited o Economics: Thomas Malthus Human population growth was faster than increase in food population Too few resources for everyone to survive Leads to Darwin's theory of Survival of the Fitness o Not every individual survives and reproduces → Natural selection Charles Darwin - Voyage of the Beagle(1831-1836) o 1831 – Darwin, 22 years old , was sent to map waters around South America o Was only supposed to be a 2 year journey o Four ports: Cape Verde Islands A ring of white sedimentary rock containing marine shells occurs around the islands about 45 ft. above sea level. Darwin reasoned that there must have
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Lecture 1 - BILD 3 Organismic and Evolutionary Biology...

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