Lecture 8-29-11

Lecture 8-29-11 - Theory of Mind Lecture ...

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Unformatted text preview: Theory of Mind Lecture 8/29/2011 Theory of Mind ­ ability to attribute mental states to other people and to yourself based on behavior o Behavior ­ includes eye gaze, gestures, action and language; behavior explains mental state o Mental state ­ includes desires, intention and belief; we integrate one’s beliefs and desires to predict their behavior. Computational Task: What is being computated and why? Understanding of Desire: Goldfish v. Broccoli Study o Show 14 mo and 18 mo goldfish and broccoli and ask them which one they like most (goldfish=most common answer) Match Condition: Experimenter makes “mm” sound to goldfish and “ew” to broccoli (matches the preference of the child) • Child (14mo and 18mo) both give experimenter what he/she likes (goldfish) • Problem is they are not taking a perspective because they like the same thing the experimenter does Mismatch Condition: Experimenter says “mm” to broccoli and “ew” to goldfish • 14mo gives experimenter goldfish (what they like not what the experimenter likes) • 18mo gives the experimenter what they like (broccoli) o measure reasoning based on someone else’s wants Can infants represent intentions? o Show a person and a machine trying to pull the end of a dumbbell off Human hand slips and does not pull of end of dumbbell Machine also fails to pull off the end 18mo is then given the dumbbell • If they imitate the human perform intended act do not appreciate intention • If they pull off the end of the dumbbell perform target act infer intention successfully Majority of 18mo performed the target act in the human condition compared to the machine condition and a controlled condition. Can infants engage in and understand pretense? o Pretending ­ deliberately distorting realities; does not effect their learning because they understand the difference between reality and pretending o Pretense Study (Bosco, et. al.) Measuring the effect of performance demand (15 ­18 mo) Q: Is failure specific to pretending? 3 tasks, each with a real version and a pretend version: • simple task (low performance demand): o Reality and Pretend versions were high in performance • Desire Task (measure pretense and desire) o Both versions are equal and lower in performance • Complex task o Both versions are even lower in performance but still equal Understanding False ­Beliefs: Sally ­Anne Task (False Belief Task) o Show Sally doll and Anne doll o Sally puts a ball in the basket and leaves o Anne moves ball from basket to box then Sally comes back o Memory Q: Where was the object in the beginning? o Reality Q: Where is the object now? o Perspective Q: Where will Sally look for her ball? 3yo: think she will look for her ball where it is, in the box (no false belief understanding) 4yo: Understands that Sally’s belief does not match reality, thinks she will look in the empty basket Appearance ­Reality Tasks o Smarties Study Show a 3yo and 4yo a package of smarties and ask them what is inside both say smarties Open the lid and pull out pencils and ask them what they thought was in there… • 3yo says pencils • 4yo says smarties (admits to being wrong) Put lid back on and ask what another child will think is in the container • 3yo: pencils • 4yo: smarties Explaining Change in False ­Belief tasks… o Claim 1: ToM (Theory of Mind)/Belief concepts change Initially children lack competence Stage theory, discontinuous development Neo ­Piagetian Change quickly from desire theory (3yo) to belief ­desire theory (4yo) o Claim 2: ToM/belief concepts do not change Initially children lack performance abilities Continuous development (core knowledge/info processing approach) Executive Function (includes inhibitory control, working memory and task switching, all of which increase over time) o Sally ­Anne Task: Must manage 3 representations to successfully answer o Test Claim 1 and 2: Look first Procedure: Say” where will sally look first for her ball?” • Shift attention and pragmatic • Makes Question more clear and explicit • According to Conceptual change (Claim 1) 3 yo systematically choose the wrong answer because they are egocentric and have a reality bias • No conceptual change (Claim 2) 3yo will pick the correct answer when the performance task is lowered Look ­First Procedure: True belief task • True belief task: Sally never leaves the room o Children get the answer right • Alternative explanation: “look first” directs attention to the first location, hence kids will always respond with the first location o True belief task proved this wrong. ...
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