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8-30-11 - Lecture Announcements: For article 3...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 8/30/11 Announcements: For article 3 Quiz, know purpose, and the 2 competing ideas being tested. Each idea has 2 underlying hypothesis to it. Theory of Mind Continued Infant False ­belief Task 15mo’s o Familiarization: establish that experimenter has a desire (certain box) o Test: Belief induction trial (experimenter’s view is blocked True belief green condition (TBG) • Watermelon is in green box and doesn’t move True belief yellow condition (TBY) • Watermelon is in yellow box and doesn’t move False belief green condition (FBG) • Watermelon in green box, gets moved to yellow box False belief yellow condition (FBY) • Watermelon in yellow box gets moved to green box 2 test events for each condition: • experimenter searches in yellow box or in green box o Results: TBG: yellow condition has higher looking condition TBY: green condition has higher looking condition FBG: yellow condition has higher looking condition FBY: green condition has higher looking condition o Infants are tracking experimenters beliefs Levels of Analysis o Behavior ­ observe problems at this level o Psychological (psych mechanisms, rules, etc.) infer explanations o Biological (neural and genetic mechanisms) infer explanations Autism (Kaner & Asperger) o Behavioral Triad of impairments • Imagination • Socialization • Communication o Charlie Task (Baron ­Cohen, 1995) Show child looking at a candy with 3 other candy’s in view • What candy is Charlie looking at? (behavioral observance) o 3yo, 4yo, and autistic child all know • Which one does Charlie want? o 3yo and 4yo still know o Autistic child is at chance (does not know, cannot infer mental state of Charlie) o Sally ­Ann Task and Autism Study(Baron ­Cohen et. al.) Autism and Down ­Syndrome Make nonverbal age of all children equal (equal IQ) Sally Anne task performed • 4yo and Down Syndrome pass • 3yo does not ­ task is too hard • Autism does not ­ ToM impairment Look ­First with Autism (lower performance demands) • 3yo passes, they have a belief • Autism does not pass, have specific ToM impairment o 2 Hypothesis H1: children with autism have a general process for all representations (beliefs, photos, maps, signs) H2: Children with autism use separate mechanism/ domain specific processes to process representations; mental state processing used for beliefs; general processing used for photos, maps, and signs • Predicts autistic children’s impairment is specific to belief Test these hypothesis with a false ­belief task v. false ­photo task • Both tasks are structurally identical • Both have representations formed, then maintained, then out dated, which causes the infant to reason about the event • False belief task: only 4 yo passes, 3yo and autistic child fail • False ­photo task: 3yo fails, 4yo and autistic child pass o Proves that the domain specific theory (H2) is true Result: Children with Autism have no problem reasoning about photos, maps and signs, only beliefs (specific domain impairement) Language Original Theories=”blank slate theories” o Form association in mind with words and objects (word learning by association) o Behaviorist position o Children do not always receive positive or negative reinforcement (no rewards or corrections) problem with these theories Blank slate type theories (non ­behaviorist) o Associationism say “banana” think of a banana association increases sound ­object pairing o Behaviorism reinforcements o More Recent… Imitation with out reinforcements Problems with Blank State Theories o Word ­object pairing Non ­pairings • Say “banana” with no bananas around but diff objects around strenghthen association of word banana to other objects Uncorrect pairing • Don’t say “banana” when there are bananas around • All not banana words increase association with banana Actively associating wrong utterance to an object o The Gavagi Problem (Quine) Say “oh a Gavagi” while looking at a bunny figure (children have no idea what exactly you are referring to) • May associate phrase with the animal, the species, name, representation, color, scene, action, etc. o Productivity of language We can understand and produce an infinite number of sentences o Systematicity of Language John loves Mary v. Mary loves John Both sentences have the same words and the same structure understand this and you can understand any sentence structured this way ...
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