rammelkamp_santamaria - ECON 140B Carina Rammelkamp Isabel...

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ECON 140B Carina Rammelkamp Isabel Santamaria Replication Exercise Ebonya Washington, in “Female Socialization: How Daughters Affect their Legislator Fathers’ Voting on Women’s Issues,” tests the hypothesis that children can influence parental behavior. In this article from the American Economic Review, Washington, from an economic standpoint, focuses on how daughters can affect their legislator father’s voting behavior, which results in effects that reflect legislators’ personal outlooks and are sometimes inconsistent with voter preferences. Sociology and statistics have shown a connection between gender of offspring and parental beliefs on, not only parenting issues, but also on issues of political significance. Washington further delves into this subject with a large quantity of data: the voting behavior of members of four Congress of the US House of Representatives, particularly 105 th through 108 th Congresses (years 1997-2004). Furthermore, the analysis is cross sectional, because of the infrequency with which representatives increase their family size. We cannot forget that the mean age for legislators was fifty-two at the 105 th Congress, so most legislators have completed their reproductive lives before entering the Congress. Washington’s basic regression model is linear: Y i = α + GIRLS i + γ i + ε i , where Y is a legislator’s voting record score (or a dummy for an individual’s liberal roll call vote), GIRLS is the number of daughters that the individual legislator parents and γ is a set of fixed effects for total number of children. In order to identify the parameter of interest, we condition on total number of children. Members of Congress without children are excluded. The more specific regression model is: Where FEMALE is a dummy variable indicating gender of the legislator, and the dummy variable RACE indicates whether the legislator is white. The other variables in (2) are self- explanatory, while DEMPRESVOTE indicates the percent of the legislator’s district that voted Democratic in the most recent presidential election. Additionally, should be interpreted as the relative impact of daughters as compared to sons, since Washington conditions on total number of children. The main assumption is that the number of female children is a random variable: in other words, there is no sex selection and no fertility stopping rule, so the gender is
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rammelkamp_santamaria - ECON 140B Carina Rammelkamp Isabel...

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