English 102 Lecture Notes

English 102 Lecture Notes - March 29, 2010 Restoration...

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March 29, 2010 Restoration England and Colonial America: The English Civil War (1641-1651) Charles I (1600-1649) John Milton (1608-1674) Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Plymouth Colony (1620) John Milton: On the losing end of the political battle against the Royalists Voice of opposition needs to be heard King and his court were corrupt loyalty damages the soul. Major Themes: The Restoration and Its Times Sin and Savagery Freedom and the Mind Late Enlightenment Longing March 31, 2010 The Restoration and the 18 th Century Charles II (1630-1685): Perform the function of a king behave and be the King Unlike the rest of people wears and does things that a King does. Pretends to be a lot of things playing the role who is not like other people. King becomes known as another human being just serving a function The Restoration and Charles II: Court theatrically Cultural images of power The divine right diminished Contradictory messages The Progress of the Ideas of Consent and Rights: Who rules? Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527): founder of political science. Power comes from legal rights. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679): The Contract with the Sovereign. Rule by consent. People have the right to not be dead. The monarch should protect its polity.
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John Locke (1632-1704): Life, Liberty, and Property. Justified the Glorious Revolution logically. Rousseau and Jefferson The Glorious Revolution and the Declaration of Rights: An Act Declaring the rights and liberties of the subject and settling the succession of the crown. Provisions: 1. Freedom from royal interference with the law. Though the sovereign remains the fount of justice, he or she cannot unilaterally establish new courts or act as a judge. 2. Freedom from taxation by Royal Prerogative. The agreement of parliament became necessary for the implementation of any new taxes. 3. Freedom to petition the monarch 4. Freedom from the standing army during a time of peace. The agreement of parliament became necessary before the army could be moved against the populace when not at war. The 18 th Century: The Children of the Industrial Revolution: The Role of Tolerance The Rise of the Bourgeoisie Grub street, printing, and satire: William Hogarth poor engraver, married daughter of the best painter in England trained by father-in-law becomes best painter in England opportunity of rising from lower to upper class. The rise of a literate class The dark side of prosperity: slavery, child labor, and “transportation” The American Revolution in England April 2, 2010 Milton: Lived through English Civil War Very influential writer political tracts Supported Cromwell Came from a fairly wealthy family Fluent in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew Blind in 1654 Wrote Paradise Lost in 1667 and finished in 1674. Wrote in blank verse
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English 102 Lecture Notes - March 29, 2010 Restoration...

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