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Lecture Notes - January 5 2010 www.alternativecopy.com...

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January 5, 2010 www.alternativecopy.com Username: ucsbhist4b Password: lansing71 Muslims Southern Iberian Peninsula Africa Asia Minor controlled by Seljuk Turks 1. Muslims: Background: Islamic religion Founded in Arabia Prophet Muhammad (d. 632) prophet and political leader No priesthood: leaders are ulema, (“persons with correct knowledge”), their authority based on their reputations for piety and learning No separation of Church-state (Muhammad’s successors: the caliphs) Jihad: struggle for the good of the community morally, spiritually, intellectually, and if necessary by the force of arms. The Qur’an: revealed by God (literally true, no human author) Emphasis: submission to God’s will (Muslims) morality and ethics. Spread: After Muhammad’s death, a dispute between his followers over his successor, the first caliph. Ali is assassinated. Christians and Jews: Peoples of the Book 2. European Muslims: In Al-Andalus (Spain) Height of prosperity and power c. 1000 Urban culture: Valencia, Sevilla, Cordoba, population over 300,000 Reconquista: gradual conquest by Christian Kingdoms from c. 1035. In Sicily: small Muslim principalities. Conquest by Norman adventurers after c. 1050. 3. Jews Early Middle Ages: Communities in Mediterranean areas: (Rome, southern France, etc.) Under legal disabilities but often unenforced (no political or domestic power over Christians) Sporadic persecution and attempts at forced conversion.
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Rich Jewish culture (synagogues, Hebrew, yeshivas, and an emphasis on education). Integrated into most aspects of urban life, spoke local languages, dressed and worked like their Christian neighbors. By 1100: new Jewish communities in the north. 4. Byzantine (Greek) Christians: Heirs of the Eastern Roman Empire capital at Constantinople. Classical heritage: hippodrome, ancient statuary, rich literary and artistic culture. Imperial authority both religious and political Patriarch a purely religious authority. Flourishing of monasticism Schism (break) with the Roman Church. 5. In the West the Roman Empire collapsed by 476. A revived Holy Roman Empire under Charlemagne, c. 800 was divided among his grandsons in 843, The Carolingian Empire set crucial political and administrative precedents. Crucially, the western Christian Church was headed by the bishops of Rome, who became the popes. Unlike the Eastern patriarchs, the popes claimed political as well as spiritual authority. Western Europe in 1050 (world of Raoul of Cambrai)=a backwater. Poor, underpopulated agricultural society Towns: small administrative centers Warrior nobility Carolingian administrative units persisted (kings, courts, counts) but monarchs had meager taxes or other ways to enforce rule and struggled to support warriors One overall question: by the end of this course in 1700, western Europe had changed from a backwater to a growing predominance on the world stage. How did that happen?
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