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PS 6- LDCs - December 1 2008 LDCs cleavages are ethnically...

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December 1, 2008 LDCs cleavages are ethnically and religiously diverse. 1. Political institutions are weak: one party rule, personalized, military rule, state structures. 2. Natural resources dependent: less industrialized, less labor skilled, rentier state-lack of government accountability, limited economic base, heavily dependent on foreign markets 3. Poor social services: less urbanized, youth explosion, HIV/AIDS. 4. Little Political/Economic independence: LDC’s => NIC Modernization Theory: agrarian society, transition through external factors, industrialize and expand, economy broadens= maturity base, consumer society and services. (Rostow Theory) Autonomy- acting independently from the people. Capacity- ability of the state to pass basic laws and function. Nigeria Largest country in Africa. Home to 25% of African population Important oil producer (5 th largest supplier to U.S.) Politically unstable, high corruption (“prebendalism”) Poor: life expectancy is 47 years, 50% have access to sanitation, infant mortality 10%, chronic disease.. Social Divisions: Ethnicity: 250-400 different ethnic groups. Hausa-Fulani (N 28-30%), Yoruba (SW 20%), and Igbo (SE 17%) Religion: Muslim north (half+) and non-Muslim South (Christianity =30%) Region: coincides in part with religion and ethnicity; north is dry and poor and Muslim; south has more resources and better services; oil is southeast or off shore. Class: small wealthy economic and political elite, large underclass; wealth linked to government, source of corruption. 90% live under 2 dollars a day. Managing Ethnic conflict: Authoritarian imposed “peace”: hegemonic exchange regime (Rothchild 1995) Cannot be managed => partition “political divorce”: rarely peaceful, India with democratization ( mass migrations), Yugoslavia after the fall (“ethnic cleansing”)
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