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1-31-ElectricCircuits BB

# 1-31-ElectricCircuits BB - Chapter 21 Electric Current and...

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Figure 21-2 The flashlight: A simple electrical circuit Chapter 21 Electric Current and Direct-Current Circuits When the switch is closed, electric charges flow through the circuit. Flow of electric charges is called electric current.

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Figure 21-1 Water flow as an analogy for electric current Similarly, in a circuit, a difference in electric potential energy (or electric potential) is needed to create and maintain an electric current.
Definition of electromotive force (emf): The potential difference maintained by an ideal battery is called the battery’s emf. Emf has unit of potential (volt) and is a measure of the work done by the battery per unit charge. Electromotive force Lower V Higher V Lower V Higher V

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Direction of current flow and electron flow Electric Current In reality, in a closed circuit electrons (- charges) flow from the – terminal (lower potential) of the battery, through the circuit, to the + terminal (higher potential) of the battery. Equivalently, we treat a current as positive (+) charges flowing from the + terminal of the battery, through the circuit, to the – terminal . Lower V Higher V
Definition of Electric Current Net amount of charge passing per unit time through an area perpendicular to the flow direction.

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1-31-ElectricCircuits BB - Chapter 21 Electric Current and...

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