CBP AP 6 Circulation and Defense SOUL

CBP AP 6 Circulation and Defense SOUL - CBP AP 6...

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LR/CC/CBP 1: Vertebrate Circulation Closed Transport System L Nutrition L Excretion and CO 2 L Temperature regulation L Communication L Defenses
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LR/CC/CBP 2: Changing Circulation Original system, single pump, simple loop L Appropriate for aquatic lifestyle Development of double circulation L Adaptation to terrestrial conditions L First partial, L 3 chambered heart to give extra boost L Mixing of oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood L Mammalian separate pulmonary circulation
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LR/CC/CBP
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LR/CC/CBP 3: Blood Vessels Arteries 20mm dia muscular wall Arterioles sphincters at capillary junctions Capillaries 0.01mm dia wall 1 cell thick Venules Veins 30mm dia elastic wall
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LR/CC/CBP
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LR/CC/CBP 4: The Heart Blood enters from vena cava to right atrium Passes to right ventricle, expelled to pulmonary circulation Returning pulmonary blood enters left atrium Passes to left ventricle and expelled to aorta
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LR/CC/CBP
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LR/CC/CBP 5: Cardiac Contraction Heart beat starts in Sino Atrial (SA) node L Pacemaker that causes regular depolarisation L Passes stimulus through gap junctions to other cardiac smooth muscle cells L Affects right and left atria simultaneously Cannot spread directly to ventricles as layer of connective tissue blocks propagation of depolarisation
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LR/CC/CBP 6: Ventricular Contraction Connective tissue crossed by special smooth muscle cells at the AtrioVentricular (AV) node L AV node connected to elongated muscle fibres, the bundle of His, that pass down the septum separating the ventricles. L Divides into Purkinje fibres that provide very fast transmission of depolarisation to muscle in rest of ventricular wall. L Allows simultaneous contraction of ventricles but with a delay after atrial contraction.
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LR/CC/CBP 7: ElectroCardioGram Depolarisation events in the heart can be monitored by electrical potential changes detected on the skin Depolarisation causes contraction, Repolarisation gives relaxation of cardiac muscle L P depolarisation of atria L QRS depolarisation of ventricles L T repolarisation
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LR/CC/CBP
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LR/CC/CBP 7: Blood Pressure Filling of atria L Diastole normal values 70 to 90 mm Hg Contraction of left ventricle L Systole normal values 110 to 130 mm Hg
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LR/CC/CBP 8: Cardiac Cycle first 0.15s L Atria at systole Ventricles diastole 0.30s L Atria at diastole Ventricles systole 0.40s L Atria at diastole Ventricles diastole Systole = contracted Diastole = relaxed
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9: Heart Sounds Heart sounds arise from the opening and closing of valves and associated turbulence Valuable non-invasive analysis of heart condition, e.g. L
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This note was uploaded on 07/04/2011 for the course BIO microbiolo taught by Professor Point during the Spring '09 term at HKU.

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CBP AP 6 Circulation and Defense SOUL - CBP AP 6...

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