Brief History Of Data Bases
In the 1960's, the use of main frame computers became widespread in many
To access vast amounts of stored information, these companies started
to use computer programs like COBOL and FORTRAN.
Data accessibility and data
sharing soon became an important feature because of the large amount of information
recquired by different departments within certain companies.
With this system,
each application owns its own data files.
The problems thus associated with this
type of file processing
was uncontrolled redundancy, inconsistent data,
inflexibility, poor enforcement of standards, and low programmer maintenance.
In 1964, MIS (Management Information Systems) was introduced.
prove to be very influential towards future designs of computer systems and the
methods they will use in manipulating data.
In 1966, Philip Kotler had the first description of how managers could
benefit from the powerful capabilities of the electronic computer as a management
In 1969, Berson developed a marketing information system for marketing
the Montgomery urban model was developed stressing the
quantitative aspect of management by highlighting a data bank, a model bank, and a
measurement statistics bank.
All of these factors will be influential on future
models of storing data in a pool.
According to Martine, in 1981, a database is a shared collection of interrelated
data designed to meet the needs of multiple types of end users.
The data is stored
in one location so that they are independent of the programs that use them, keeping
in mind data integrity with respect to the approaches to adding new data, modifying
data, and retrieving existing data.
A database is shared and perceived differently
by multiple users.
This leads to the arrival of Database Management Systems.
These systems first appeared around the 1970=s as solutions to problems
associated with mainframe computers.
Originally, pre-database programs accessed
their own data files.
Consequently, similar data had to be stored in other areas
where that certain piece of information was relevant.
Simple things like addresses
were stored in customer information files, accounts receivable records, and so on.
This created redundancy and inefficiency.
Updating files, like storing files, was
also a problem.
When a customer=s address changed, all the fields where that
customer=s address was stored had to be changed.
If a field happened to be missed,
then an inconsistency was created.
When requests to develop new ways to manipulate
and summarize data arose, it only added to the problem of having files attached to