E E 339 - CN3-Quantum Mechanics

E E 339 - CN3-Quantum Mechanics - Selected Topics in...

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1 Selected Topics in Quantum Mechanics (A “Handbook for the Quantum Technician,” a “User’s Guide for the Beginner,” or a “Quantum Cookbook”) EE339 student observed during quantum mechanics lecture * *actually Dr. John Paul Stapp undergoing acceleration on the G-Whiz rocket sled in 1947. Introduction Some experimental observations Particle wavefunctions and their interpretation Outline Eigen-states, measurement, and the Uncertainty Principle Energy eigenstates Basic quantum mechanical behaviors by example Spin indistinquishability Pauli exclusion and Fermi Spin, indistinquishability, Pauli exclusion and Fermi statistics One more example of quantum mechanical behavior: covalent bonding forces Summary of important concepts 2
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2 One measure of that scale at which quantum mechanical behavior becomes overt is Plank’s constant, h 6.6 x 10 34 Joule-seconds, which shows up in almost every equation in quantum mechanics. If h were on the order of say 66 Joule-seconds, then there would Introduction be a reasonable chance you could, e.g., walk through walls and without injuring yourself or the wall, actually be two places at once, and never, ever run out of energy However, Plank’s constant is 6.6 x 10 34 Joule-seconds, and the realm of overt quantum mechanical behavior is generally the small, light and low energy, such as electrons and/or nanoscale objects. That is, quantum is reserved for things like electron devices. 3 Indeed, quantum mechanics is necessary to truly understand many even quite basic concepts critical to all semiconductor devices, nanoscale or otherwise, such as o why silicon atoms even stick together to form crystals, o why metals, semiconductors and insulators are just that, o what “holes” are, as per Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) and Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology, oe t c . . Without this background often one must use a “then a miracle occurs approach” … or worse. 4
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3 The scale of things Head of a pin 1-2 mm Human hair: ~60-120 m diameter Ant: ~5 mm 1 millimeter (mm) 1 cm 10 mm 10 -2 m 10 -3 m Microwave 1,000,000 nanometers = Quantum corral (48 iron atoms on copper positioned with an Length of switchable conduction channel in current state-of-the-art MOSFETs: 25 nm DNA: Red blood cells with white cell: ~ 2-5 m Microworld 0.1 m 100 nm 1 micrometer ( m) 0.01 mm 10 m 0.1 mm 100 m 10 -4 m 10 -5 m 10 -6 m 10 -7 m Visible 1,000 nanometers = Infrared olet STM tip) (IBM): 14nm diameter 2-1/2 nm diameter Carbon nanotube: ~1-3 nm diameter 0.1 nm 1 nanometer (nm) 0.01 m 10 nm 10 -8 m 10 -9 m 10 -10 m Nanoworld Ultravi Soft x-ray Length of switchable conduction channel in MOSFETs by ~2015: 14 nm Width of switchable conduction channel in current state-of-the-art MOSFETs (~2-3 nm) 5 Future device concepts & quantum mechanics An excerpt from the 2005 International Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), Emerging Research Devices 6
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4 So just how modern is this “modern physics”?
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This note was uploaded on 09/03/2011 for the course E E 339 taught by Professor Leonardregister during the Fall '11 term at University of Texas.

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E E 339 - CN3-Quantum Mechanics - Selected Topics in...

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