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Unformatted text preview: 1 Atomic structure and the Periodic Table Atomic structure and the Periodic Table Introduction Atomic orbitals of hydrogen Other atoms their properties and the periodic table Outline Other atoms, their properties, and the periodic table Atoms of semiconductors Summary of important concepts 2 2 Basic electrical and optical device properties of semiconductor devices depend on the quantum mechanical states of the semiconductor crystal Introduction but to step right from a fast abbreviated introduction to quantum mechanics to this latter subject is a bit like taking the training wheels off your bike and entering the Tour de France. These notes are intended to (slightly) buffer that transition a bit by considering first the hydrogen atom the only atom and one of the few quantum mechanical systems that can be analyzed exactly analytically and then more complicated atoms that to date cant be analyzed exactly even by numerical methods including those that make up semiconductor crystals. 3 Central potential ( e 2 /4 o r ) with spherical symmetry carrier energy eigenfuctions, the orbitals , that are separable in spherical coordinates plus spin The atomic orbitals of the Hydrogen atom Orbitals = energy eigenstates by the numbers in spherical coordinates plus spin ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , ( ' s r s m l n E n r Figure 27 The spherical coordinate system....
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- Fall '11