PO 241 - Essay - 3 What is bilingual education What did...

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3. What is bilingual education? What did Massachusetts law require until November 2002? What does Massachusetts law now require? What is the research evidence, according to Rossell, on the effectiveness of the programs for limited English proficient children? Bilingual Education was a policy that grew out of Title 6 of Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974. The US Supreme Court interpreted these acts that mandated states and local school districts to set up programs rectifying language deficiencies of students from non English speaking families. (Under Cochran) was a policy that attempted to raise the achievement of immigrant and limited English proficient children to the equal of Anglos and native speakers. Under an ideal situation, Bilingual education would have been effective because this educational policy taught the children as early as kindergarten or 1 st grade to read and write in their native tongue. They were taught in their native tongue and they taught English for about an hour a day. The learning of English was gradually increased while the use of the native tongue in class was decreased when the student reached native tongue proficiency. In Rossell’s “The Near End of Bilingual Education”, Rossell points out that they underlying idea or theory of bilingual education is that theory that development of skills in a second language is facilitated by skills already developed in learning the first language. Proponents of bilingual education argued that it reduced dropout rates and facilitates the political socialization of non English speaking students into American culture. Not only did it help integrate them into culture and society, it helped cultivate national identity as well. It educates them along the lines of US ideals and helps create a beneficial and ideal society. However, no school practices a true form of bilingual education as stated above. In the past, schools have exercised instructional programs which they label as “bilingual” even though these programs stray far from what the true extent or idea that bilingual education really is. The most common forms of instructional programs for students with limited English proficiency are English as a Second Language (ESL) and sheltered English immersion programs. In ESL tutoring in English where the child is pulled out of an hour a day to be taught English at his or her pace and level is mixed with regular classroom instruction, wherein both English Learners and English speaking students are taught in English in the same classroom for most of the day. Sheltered English Immersion Program involves teaching in English to a classroom filled only with English learners. If all the children speak one language, the teacher may also speak in that language from time to time to clarify or explain a concept, but the children learn to read and write in English and other subjects such as math and science in English as well.
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