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IS03-Cryptography - Pintu R Shah Pintu In this unit...

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Pintu R Shah
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In this unit.. circle5 Cryptography basics circle5 Transposition ciphers circle5 Substitution ciphers circle5 Data Encryption Standard circle5 Public key cryptography circle5 Streams and block ciphers circle5 Key Management circle5 Digital Signature circle5 PEM and IPSec. Pintu R Shah MPSTME SVKM's NMIMS 2
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What is cryptography? circle5 Cryptography (from Greek word kryptos meaning "hidden, secret"; and gráphō , "I write") is the practice and study of hiding information. circle5 Cryptanalysis is breaking of codes Pintu R Shah MPSTME SVKM's NMIMS 3
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Terminologies circle5 Plain Text: the original information. circle5 Cipher text: unintelligible gibberish data. It is the output of encryption process circle5 Encryption,is the process of converting ordinary information (plaintext) into unintelligible gibberish (i.e., cipher text). circle5 Decryption is the reverse, in other words, moving from the unintelligible ciphertext back to plaintext. circle5 A cipher (or cypher) is a pair of algorithms which create the encryption and the reversing decryption. The detailed operation of a cipher is controlled both by the algorithm and in each instance by a key. circle5 Key:This is a secret parameter (ideally known only to the communicants) for a specific message exchange context. Pintu R Shah MPSTME SVKM's NMIMS 4
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Goals of cryptography circle5 Four primary goals circle5 Confidentiality circle5 Integrity circle5 Nonrepudiation circle5 Authentication circle5 Many applications provide multiple cryptographic benefits simultaneously circle5 For example: e-mail cryptography systems Pintu R Shah MPSTME SVKM's NMIMS 5
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Goals of Cryptography circle5 Confidentiality is most commonly addressed goal circle5 The meaning of a message is concealed by encoding it circle5 The sender encrypt s the message using a cryptographic key circle5 The recipient decrypt s the message using a cryptographic key that may or may not be the same as the one used by the sender Pintu R Shah MPSTME SVKM's NMIMS 6
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Goals of Cryptography (continued) circle5 Integrity circle5 Ensures that the message received is the same as the message that was sent circle5 Uses hash ing to create a unique message digest from the message that is sent along with the message circle5 Recipient uses the same technique to create a second digest from the message to compare to the original one circle5 This technique only protects against unintentional alteration of the message circle5 A variation is used to create digital signatures to protect against malicious alteration Pintu R Shah MPSTME SVKM's NMIMS 7
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Goals of Cryptography (continued) circle5 Non repudiation circle5 The sender of a message cannot later claim he/she did not send it circle5 Available with asymmetric cryptosystems that can create digital signatures Pintu R Shah MPSTME SVKM's NMIMS 8
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Goals of Cryptography (continued) circle5 Authentication circle5 A user or system can prove their identity to another who does not have personal knowledge of their identity circle5 Accomplished using
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