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equations - NT = N0 2(T/g as time increases t/g = 1 2 3 23...

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N T = N 0 • 2 (T/g) N T is the number of cells at time T N 0 is the number of cells at time T = 0 g is the generation time as time increases, t/g = 1, 2, 3 ..., thus 2 1 , 2 2 , 2 3 , etc. A cube has a surface area of 6 • x 2 . Its volume is x 3 . For a sphere, the surface area is 4 • π • r 2 , and the volume is π • r 3 . For a cylinder, the surface area is 2 • π • r • h (plus 2πr 2 for the top and bottom of the cylinder), the volume is π • r 2 • h. For a rectangle, the surface area is 2(d•w) + 2(l•d) + 2(l•w), the volume is d•w•l. Heat conduction rates are defined by the relation: P cond = Q / t = k • A • [(T a - T b ) / L] where P cond is the rate of conduction (transferred heat, Q, divided by time, t); k is the thermal conductivity; T a and T b are the temperatures of the two heat reservoirs a and b; A is the area; and L is the distance. Thermal conductivities of water and air are about 0.6 and 0024 W m –1 K –1 , respectively. Thermal radiation is defined by the relation: P rad = σ • ε • A • T 4 where P rad is the rate of radiation; σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5.6703 • 10 –8 W m –2 K –4 ; ε is the emissivity (varies from 0 to 1 for a blackbody radiator); A is the area; and T is the temperature (in Kelvins). The net radiative emission or absorption will depend upon the difference in temperature: P net = σ • ε • A • (T 4 body – T 4 ambient ) dM dt = μ M μ

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equations - NT = N0 2(T/g as time increases t/g = 1 2 3 23...

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