Exam 1 review

Exam 1 review - 1 EXAM 1 REVIEW (CH 9 12); Be familiar with...

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1 EXAM 1 REVIEW (CH 9 – 12); Be familiar with Key Terms for CH 9-12 CHAPTER 9 1) Cell theory of Schleiden & Schwann 2) Know basic steps of cell division (stimulus or signal to initiate division; replicate DNA; partition DNA; cytokinesis to split & generate 2 new cells) a) Asexual: Prokaryotes - binary fission (or just fission); Eukaryotes – mitosis. i) Result: genetically identical daughter cells b) Sexual: Eukaryotes only – formation of haploid gametes via meiosis; male, female gametes unite during fertilization to form zygote. c) Purpose of cell division: growth; replace dead cells (repair/regeneration); reproduction 3) Chromosomes : prokaryotes (single, circular chromosome); eukaryotes (multiple, linear chromosomes); know chromosome terminology (chromatin, chromatids, sister & non-sister chromatids, single replicated chromosome has 2 chromatids, centromere, condensed chromosome v. uncondensed or uncoiled chromosome, homologous chromosomes, karyotype) 4) Cell cycle : Interphase (G1 & G0, S, G2) & M (mitosis) phase (prophase,/prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase & cytokinesis); know main features of each phase. Mitotic spindle & microtubules, kinetochore, centrosomes, centrioles: for organized movement of chromosomes during mitosis. a) Control: cyclin proteins; formation of cdk-cyclin complexes stimulate cell division (G1-S; G2-M phase checkpoints) b) Apoptosis 5) Meiosis : reductive division (reduce chromosome # in half; haploid; 1 DNA replication, 2 cell divisions). For formation of gametes by sex cells (contrast with somatic cells Æ mitosis) a) Meiosis starts with diploid # reduce to ½ at end of Meiosis I; Prophase I (homologous pairs & tetrad formation, crossing over); know chromosome forms (homologous pairs separate in Meiosis I,
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Exam 1 review - 1 EXAM 1 REVIEW (CH 9 12); Be familiar with...

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