Exam 2 review

Exam 2 review - 1 EXAM 2 Review: CH 13, 14, 16, 17 & CH 19...

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1 EXAM 2 Review: CH 13, 14, 16, 17 & CH 19 CH 13: Genetics of Bacteria & Viruses ± Viruses ¾ Know features and properties of viruses ² How viruses are defined and compared to cells ² Viral structure; Nucleic acid types ² Phage vs. animal viruses ² Infectivity: virus:host recognition (at cell surface) via specific protein/glycoprotein receptors ² Transmission: spread of virus ¾ Bacteriophages ² Know steps and features of Lytic & Lysogenic cycle ² Lytic: attachment/penetration/synthesis/assembly/release ² Lysogenic: prophage formation ² Genetic control of lytic infection: basis for regulation; early gene/late gene regulation of lytic phage ¾ Animal viruses ² Enveloped viruses (what is the envelope?); gain entry via processes of membrane fusion or endocytosis (preceded by virus:host recognition via cell surface receptors). ² Types of infection: (a) lytic; (b) provirus formation (no viral progeny formed;); (c) provirus formed and maintained but coupled to new viral particle formation and release at a low rate (budding off or “shedding” of new viral particles); chronic v. acute infection. ² Retroviruses (RNA viruses): violate central dogma (make DNA copy of RNA with reverse transcriptase) ± Bacteria: ways in which bacteria can increase their genetic variation: transformation, transduction, conjugation (Lederburg & Tatum expt) ± Bacterial Gene organization ¾ Why have gene regulation? ¾ Prokaryotic genes: Operon (multiple genes that function in same pathway under control of a single promoter); promoter, structural genes, regulatory elements (regulatory gene Æ repressor protein; operator region binds repressor) ¾ Transcriptional Control: Lactose & Tryptophan operons: the logic of the mechanism of control for each based on the relative importance of each molecule to the cell. Gene products for pathways not used
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This note was uploaded on 09/04/2011 for the course BIOL 1362 taught by Professor Drk during the Spring '07 term at HCCS.

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Exam 2 review - 1 EXAM 2 Review: CH 13, 14, 16, 17 & CH 19...

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