Exam 3, Sample

Exam 3, Sample - 2.; in CH my Questions (Evolution, Natural...

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Unformatted text preview: 2.; in CH my Questions (Evolution, Natural Selection, & Population Genetics) 1. 10. ll. 12. Which of the following statements about evolution would be supported by most biologists? A) Evolution is understandable, but not predictable. B) Evolution results in greater complexity. C) Given specific initial conditions, evolution is predetermined. D) Mutation is more important than environment in directing the course of evolution. E) All these statements are supported by biologists. Which of the following did not influence Darwin in terms of formulating his theory of evolution? A) Breeding of animals directed by humans. B) The ancient view that life was unrelated and organized into a ladder from simple to complex forms. C) Malthus' essay on food supply and population growth. D) Geological evidence indicating the Earth was much older than 6000 years. E) All were influences on Darwin. Which of the following statements is not true about natural selection? A) Offspring of individuals that are better adapted will make up a larger proportion of the next generation. B) Natural selection directs evolution by preserving traits acquired during an individual's lifetime. C) Natural selection depends on the genetic variability in a pupulation, which arises through mutations and recombination. D) Natural selection acts to preserve favorable traits and eliminate unfavorable traits. E) Natural selection leads to adaptive evolutionary change. Natural selection acts on variation; however, evolution depends on variation. A) phenotypic; genetic B) genetic; phenotypic C) genetic; environmentally-induced D) environmentally—induced;phenotypic E) artificially—induced; genetic The remnants of pelvic bones in the modern whale, or degenerate limb bones in snakes are examples of A) homoplastic structures. B) vestigial structures. C) convergent evolution. D) neutral mutations. E) reproductive isolation. The following is true concerning fossils except: A) The fossil record represents a chronological history of life on Earth. B) In geological formations, younger fossils are found near the top, older ones toward the bottom. C) Fossils provide direct evidence that support the theory of evolution. D) Evidence of every species that ever inhabited Earth has been found in the fossil record. E) Fossils can provide the timing of evolutionary events. A newly evolved species may take over an ecological role or ecological niche that is already occupied if the new species has: A) the ability to alter or change the environmental parameters. B) features that make it competitively superior to the original occupant of that niche. C) the ability to evolve through natural selection, Whereas the original occupant cannot continue to evolve. D) the ability to grow to a larger size, thus providing it with a selective advantage. E) fitness that is almost as high as the fitness of the original species. Which of the following does not contribute to limits on population growth? A) predation B) increased reproductive success C) lack of water or food D) disease causing organisms E) unfavorable climatic conditions A) are modifications of existing structures B) usually D) must be heritable in order The following are true concerning adaptations except: arise through mutation C) similar adapations can occur in very different species provide a benefit to the population E) all (A-D) are true statements A population evolves when A) environmentally-induced variation is constant between generations. B) individuals with different genotypes survive or reproduce at different rates. C) the Hardy—Weinberg equation is equal to one. D) members reproduce by cloning. B) there is no migration between populations of the same species. Genetic equilibrium (i.e., Hardy—Weinberg equilibrium) in a population A) refers to equal numbers of dominant and recessive alleles. B) refers to equal numbers of females and males. C) refers to unchanging allele frequencies in successive generations. D) occurs due to nonrandom mating. E) occurs as a result of a bottleneck event. is a microevolutionary factor that results in random changes in allele frequencies of a small population due to sudden decreases in its size or by the migration of members of the population to new areas. A) Gene flow B) Mutation C) Genetic drift D) Natural selection E) Nonrandom mating Page I 13. Differential reproductive success is equivalent to: A) evolution. B) competition. C) mutation. D) natural selection. E) adaptation. 14. When populations with separate ancestors adapt in similar ways to similar environmental constraints, it is referred to as: A) biogeography. B) coevolution. C) convergent evolution. D) homologous evolution. E) natural selection. 15. A population has 200 individuals with genotype DD, 500 of genotype Dd and 300 of genotype dd. What is the frequency of the dominant D allele? A) 0.70 B) 0.30 C) 0.45 D) 0.55 E) 0.90 Use the following to answer questions 16-18: In a population of 200 individuals in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 72 are homozygous recessive for the character of eye color (cc). One hundred individuals from this population die due to a fatal disease. T hirty—six of the survivors are homozygous recessive. Answer the following questions. 16. What was the frequency of the dominant phenotype in the original population? A) 0.80 B) 0.36 C) 0.64 D) 0.48 E) 0.60 17. In the originalpopulation, the frequency of the dominant allele was A) 0.16. B) 0.36. C) 0.40. D) 0.48. E) 0.60. 18. In the new population, the frequency of the dominant allele is A) 0.16. B) 0.36. C) 0.40. D) 0.48. E) 0.60. Use the following to answer questions 19—20: The two graphs below represent phenotypic distribution of a character in a population of organisms over time. The first curve represents the distribution at an initial sampling time, while the second represents a sampling of a later generation. Number of individuals e ' is 20 so 40 50 Height {arbitrary units) Number of 23 individuals 10 0 10 20 30 40 '50 tieight (arbitrary units} 19. The process illustrated by these graphs is called A) stabilizing selection. B) directional selection. C) disruptive selection. D) convergent evolution. E) divergent evolution. Page 2 20. The graphs suggest that A) taller individuals migrated away from the original population. B) shorter individuals migrated into the original population. C) taller individuals were more successful at reproducing than short individuals were. D) in the initial population, there were more tall individuals than short ones. E) the individuals in the population continued to grow between sample times. 7:5 CH fl Questions (Speciation) 21. The biological species definition: A) relies on morphological similarities and is applicable to prokaryotes. B) emphasizes reproductive isolation. C) is based on interbreeding within the species population. D) A and B are both correct. E) B and C are both correct. 22. Speciation is an important component of evolution because it A) generates the variation upon which natrual selection acts. B) generates the high extinction rates that drive evolutionary change. C) has resulted in a world with millions of species, each adapted for a particular way of life. D) is a microevolutionary factor that influences small changes in populations. Use the following to answer questions 23—24: Match the following descriptions of speciation with the appropriate terms from the list below. Terms may be used once, more than once, or not at all. a. allopatric speciation b. sympatric speciation 23. The red tubular-flowered gilias of western North America are a group of species living in the Mojave Desert. Originally considered to be a single species, the group now contains five species: three diploids and two tetraploids (having four sets of chromosomes). These five species, which are similar in appearance and sterile in all interspecific mating combinations, are an example of 24. Different populations of platyfish live in the rivers of eastern Mexico. The subpopulations living in different streams have been diverging since an ancestral platyfish colonized all the streams. Some subpopulations have diverged so much that they cannot interbreed and produce viable offspring with individuals from other subpopulations. Thus, these populations of platyfish exist at various stages in the process of 25. Evolutionary biologists believe that all the species present today, along with all the species that lived in the past, are descended from A) a single ancestral species. B) thousands of different origins. C) one ancestral species per kingdom. D) one ancestral species per phylum. E) two or three ancestral species per kingdom. 26. Which of the following would not result in reproductive isolation between two populations that are reunited following geographic isolation? A) The two populations produce successful hybrids. B) The two populations have different breeding seasons. C) There are physiological differences between the two populations so that they cannot produce viable offspring. D) Members of one population do not find members of the other population attractive as mating partners. E) The two populations have different courtship behaviors. 27. Which of the following is the hypothesized sequence of events in geographic Speciation? A) Geographic barrier, reproductive isolation, genetic divergence B) Geographic barrier, genetic divergence, reproductive isolation C) Genetic divergence, geographic barrier, reproductive isolation D) Genetic divergence, reproductive isolation, geographic barrier E) Reproductive isolation, genetic divergence, geographic barrier 28. Six squirrels with different tail spotting patterns live in eastern Mexico. Five of them can interbreed and produce fertile offspring. One of them cannot interbreed with the other five. What can you conclude about these squirrels? A) They all belong to the same biological species. B) They each are a different biological species. C) There are two biological Species in the example above. D) There is not enough data given to draw a conclusion. E) There are six biological species in the example above. Page 3 29. 30. 31. 32. "25 Which of the following is not true of a hybrid zone? A) It occurs where two different populations come into Contact. B) It may shift in location due to environmental changes. C) Its habitat may differ from that favored by the parent populations. D) It may disappear if reproductive isolating mechanisms develop. E) There must be a geographic barrier enclosing the hybrid zone. The prevention of genetic exchange between two species because they reproduce at different times of the day, season, or year is called: A) hybrid sterility. B) temporal isolation. C) sexual isolation. D) a post-zygotic mechanism. E) B and D are correct. Which of the following statements about allopolyploidy is false? A) It can result in a new, reproductiver isolated species in just one generation. B) Many flowering plant species are allopolyploids. C) It accounts for most of the remarkable species diversity observed on Earth today. D) The hybrid may have a combination of traits conferring greater fitness than the parent species. E) The hybrid may assume a new role in the environment and so coexist with the parent species. What process refers to dramatic phenotypic changes that sometimes occur in evolution, such as the appearance of feathered wings during the evolution of birds? A) paedomorphosis B) macroevolution C) allopolyploidy D) microevolution CH fiQuestions (Taxonomy & Phylogeny) 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. In a comparison of humans and chimps with dogs and cats, an ancestral trait would be A) hands specialized for grasping. B) presence of body hair. C) standing on two legs. D) lack of a tail. E) poor sense of smell. Any two structures derived from a common ancestral trait are said to be A) analogous. B) morphological traits. C) biochemical traits. D) homologous. E) homoplasic. Which of the following statements about classification is false? A) Members of a family are less similar than members of an included genus. B) An order has more members than a genus has. C) Families have more members than phyla have. D) The common ancestor shared by members of a family is a more distant ancestor than the one shared by members of an included genus. E) The number of species in a taxon depends on the relative similarity of the different species. The excellent fossil record of horses shows that modern horses, which have one toe on each foot, evolved from ancestors that had multiple toes. A trait that differs from the ancestral trait in the lineage is called a(n) trait. A) derived B) ancestral C) morphological D) biochemical E) fimdamental Which of the following would be most useful for constructing a phylogenetic tree for several fish species? A) several homoplastic characteristics shared by all the fishes. B) a single homologous characteristic common to all the fishes. C) the total degree of morphological similarity among various fish species. D) several Characteristics thought to have evolved after different fishes diverged after one another. Page 4 Use the foilowing to answer questions 38-42: Below is a phylogentic tree (cladogram) comparing the evolutionary histories of organisms E, F, G, H, and I, which are current living organisms. A 38. The most recent common ancestor is shared by: A) H and I B) G, H, and I C) E and F D) E, F, G, H, andI E) C, D, G, and H 39. Which grouping below represents a monophyletic taxon? A) G and H B) F and G C) G, H, and I D) E, F, G, H, and I E) The groupings G, H, I, and E, F, G, H, I could both be considered monophyletic taxa 40. If this phylogenetic tree were constructed using DNA sequencing data, which 2 organisms would have the greatest number of differences in their DNA? A) E andI B) F and H C) E and H D) G andI E) Not enough information to answer this question. 41. Which of the following statements is false concerning the organisms in this cladogram? A) Organisms E, F, G, H, and I could belong to the same family; H andl to the same class. B) Organism F has the youngest evolutionary history compared to G, H and I. C) Grouping G and H together in a taxon would result in a paraphyletic taxon. D) Organisms E, F, G, H, and I could belong to the same phylum; G, H and I to the same class. E) All (A—D) are false statements. 42. True or False: Organism I has a specific shared derived trait that separates it from H; organisms I, G, and H share the same ancestral trait separates them from organism E. A) True B) False Page 5 ...
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Exam 3, Sample - 2.; in CH my Questions (Evolution, Natural...

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