General principles of drawings

General principles of drawings - m; UJDI'J mmwwmmmwwwmuuw...

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Unformatted text preview: m; UJDI'J mmwwmmmwwwmuuw Ill illl'illllilJllf m ii‘ ii‘ 11‘ il‘ Ll 11 ll' 'Ll‘ Ll‘ AALBORG TEKNISKE SKOLE Byggetekni‘sk afdeiing Studiasaien General Principles of Drawings BPS-publication 3rd Edition, June 1989 English Version, October 1996 l1!umuwwwwmmmwwwwwwwwuwwwww m iiil’llllilll. a BPS General Principles of Drawings Contents Introduction Project Organisation Page 2 Introduction Page 3 What is General Principles of Drawings? Page 4 Why use General Principles of Drawings? Page 5 Advantages of using General Principles of Drawings? Page 6 Buuldlng elements Page 7 Guidelines for the coding of drawings according to building element classifi— cation - with the aim of improving the quality of drawing information for both the designers and producers of buil- dings. Drawing levels Page 35 Guidelines for the classification of drawings on a 5 level system. 1 2 3 4 5 Classification of drawings Page 49 Guidelines for the classification of drawings with the aid of drawing num— bers and job specifications etc. Bibliography References to Professional Literature 5 advantages of using General Principles of Drawings — a systematic working process General Principles of Drawings makes planning and design easy right from the start. — re—use General Principles of Drawings classifies drawings in a way that exploits any repetition in a project. This has advantages when calculating quantities and costs, and when planning time and work schedules. — logically arranged General Principles of Drawings arranges drawings so that information about linked activities is put on one drawing or set of drawings. This gives a good overall understanding of the work, and all the relevant drawings, involved in any specific job. 1 easy to revise Using General Principles of Drawings means that any revision of drawings is easily done. Changes are usually only made in one place in the drawings — which reduces the possibility for the accumulation of faults. - reduced costs General Principles of Drawings is designed to rew use drawings. This helps to minimise the cost of preparing drawings. mgmalmnmsm m; m Fl! '1 '3 m (it I'd-1 ran an m m m m rm m1 ('1‘ m "'1 ing elements on site Examples of build site clearance, demolition n and filling outside open—cut excavation Piled and ring Site preparation — e.g. of buildings, ground excavatio building. Site establishment, including bracing, sheet piling. foundations. Foundations in ground. ('ncluding secondary buildings and (20) Primary elements Minor buildings 1 surface structures — such as shelters, cycle sheds, buildings for small transformer stations). Fencing and supporting walls. Service passageways including pipe gantries and tunnels. viaducts etc. Stairs and ramps in (10) Substructure in ground - Footbridges, ground. doors and hatches in ground. Stair and (30) Completions Fencing, ramp fittings in ground — banisters, railings and handrails etc. (including related excas (40) Finishes Paving and other surfacing vation works and backfilling, kerbstones etc.) on recreation areas, roads and parking areas, as well as stairs and or planting. paths, sports and garden areas, ramps in the ground. Areas f 'ce branch pipes and surface drains. (50) Services Drains, serVi fire hydrants, wa— — piped and ducted Drainpipes. Water branch pipes, ter pumps. Natural gas branch—pipes. District hea- l and gas. ting branchepipes. Storage tanks for oi outside building. (60) Services Branch cables electrical and mechanical Road and area lighting. — Parking systems etc., infor— (70) Fittings (equipment) Technical equipment mation boards, signs and screens. Storage facili— ties. Waste container stands, cycle stands, post- boxes etc. Tables and seating. // 10 [.1 mm 11 It 11 fin rT on G} r fl'! {an ,un . r-‘i n Examples of building elements for substructure The substructure of a building consists of those elements forming the parts of the building that bear directly on the ground. In other words the foundations or floor beds. Piled or ring foundations are included in the building base — ground, as these types of foundations are due to the ground’s poor bearing capacity. In other words, building elements in the ground which are related to ground reinforcement. Strip foundations, pad foundations and raft foun— dations. (12) Foundations N.B.: Piled and ring foundations are classed under (10). Basement walls onto soil are classed under (21). (13) Floor beds Floor beds in basement and on ground level. In other words, slabs on the soil from the underside of any screed layer, or the underside of any floor coverings including related work such as blinding, insulation and reinforcement. (18) other base elements For example, ducts or channels under floor beds, pits or sumps. 12 , new i . a £579 HIV 1‘“ .HD I!- 13 3333333383333333333333333333333333 Examples of Primary elements ________________,_.______———-—--——-——- External basement walls and light shafts, together with hearing and non—bearing, outer walls, as well as facade columns and external wall beams. It also includes completions and finishes where such units are associated with the constructional completion of the external wall — for example, windows, clad— fixtures and fittings. (21) External walls dings, _____.______fl.___________n_____fl___________________________________________ Basement walls together with bearing and non—bea— ring inner walls, as well as columns and beams in inner walls. Shaft walls, chimney walls, service shafts etc. Shafts for elevators / lifts. It also includes completions and finishes where such units are associated with the constructional completion of the inner walls — for example, doors, clad— dings, pipe-ways and fittings. ______________________.___._.._—-———-———-———— Basement and crawl space floor beds together with floor decking and related beams, internal balconi- es, galleries, suspended floors and stands. Roof decking and special slabs under built—up roofs. It also includes completions and finishes where such units are associated with the constructional com— pletion of the decking — for example, hatches, railings, sub—floors, ceilings, floor and ceiling finishes, and pipe lead-ins and fittings. ___________________,________——————-———-—-——-— External/internal stairs and ramps - including landings, as well as fixed ladders and ladder rungs. It also includes completions and finishes where such units are associated with the construc— tional completion of the stairs — for example, banisters, claddings and fittings. (22) Internal walls (23) Floors (24) Stairs and ramps ______________________._.___._———-—————-—-—- Balconies and access balconies — cantilevered, open, bolted—on and detached. It also includes completions and finishes where such units are associated with the constructional completion of the balcony or access balcony - for example, guard-rails, parapets, claddings and fit- (26) Balconies tings. _____________________________————————-————-————- Roof work including the bearing units for both flat and pitched roofs — including the submstruc- ture for the roof covering — battens, boarding, plywood etc., and canopies and awnings. It also includes completions and finishes where such units are associated with the constructional completion of the roof — for example, skylights and hatches, cladding, pipe—ways and fittings. (27) Roofs __M__________________,______._—————————-———-——- 16 .F! "f !* 'I". |._.; F5??? 17 SUPERSTRUCTURE Completions Primary ele- ments 3333333333EEEEEEQEEBEBBEBBE3333EBB Examples of Completions ________________________—-———-—-_-——— Doors, gateways and windows — including glass sections and shop facades — sun shields, shutters, grilles, sills, flashing etc. It also includes coverings and finishes where they form part of the constructional completion of the external wall. (31) External walls - completions ____________________—.__—.-———-—————-— (32) Internal walls - completions Doors hatches, flaps and windows 4 including glass partition walls, mobile walls and flashings, skirting boards and fenders. It also includes coverings and finishes Where they form part of the constructional completion of the internal wall. _______n__________________n_______n_____________________w_________________________ (33) Floors/Decking - completions Built—up floors, floating floors, flaps, gratings, matting frames etc. Bases for machinery. It also includes ceiling and floor finishes, services, fittings etc., where they form part of the con” structional completion of the floors. _______d___________._______________n____________________n__.__________,_______ii Banisters, railings, handrails, gratings and mat— ting frames etc. It also includes finishes and fittings where they form part of the constructio— nal completion of stairs and ramps. (34) Stairs and ramps — completions ______n____________________i_________n___________n_.____________m__________i___________ Suspended and built—up ceilings including complete systems. It also includes finishes and services where they form part of the constructional com— pletion of the ceiling. (35) Ceilings - completions ____i___________________________i_l_________i______.__i__i____________,________________ Railings, parapets etc., for balconies and access balconies. It also includes finishes and clad— dings, services and fittings etc., where they form part of the constructional completion of the bal— cony. (36) Balconies — completions ______________,_._...—.____———-—-———-——-——M- Dormers, skylights and smoke flaps. Solar scree— ning of skylights, snow guard, railings, screens etc. Inspection hatches, doors, roof overhang, barge/verge boards, fascia boards and flashings. It also includes fittings etc., where they form part of the constructional completion of the roof. (37) Roofs — completions _____i_________n.n________.________n_n________________________flu_,i________,___________ 18 Fm F". I- I} 1". II .I 1-| 19 SUPERSTRUCTUFIE Completions Primary ele- ments 33333333333333333333334333aaaagaaga Examples of Finishes _______________________________.____—__————— “Finishes” is the term for surfaces, claddings and coverings on both primary and completion elements. ______—____________.—____—_...—_—————-—-——- (41) External wall Finishes and coverings on the outer side of exter- d finishes nal walls — including, for example, renders and decorative works. ________—______—__—.__———————«——-— (42) Internal wall Finishes and coverings on inner walls and the inner — finishes side of external walls — including, for example, plaster, tiles, mouldings and linings etc. ___________w______________.—__._.._.———-————-—-——~—— (43) Floors - finishes Surface finish on the upper side of decks and floors — including skirting boards and, for exam— ple, screeds, asphalt bases and insulation on top of floor bases. _______________,_____.___.____...—...———-——————-—- (44) Stairs and ramps Step coverings on stairs, risers, stringers and — finishes landings a including skirting boards, cleaning strip and front beading. Surface treatment of banisters and railings, etc. ________________,____—_.___._.___.—__———-————————- (45) Ceilings a finishes Finishes and coverings on the under side of deck slabs, suspended and built—up ceilings including edging strips, mouldings, stucco, etc. _________________—__.—____._————-—————-———- (46) Balconies — finishes Finishes and coverings on balconies and access balconies. Surface treatment of banisters and railings etc. ________________________...__._______.—————-————--—-—— (47) Roofs - finishes External claddings and coverings on pitched and flat roofs. 20 21 s e h .B .m F E m T m C O U ..._u R b T. s m m o D. C U S - .m... es V..m me .mm r P BS33333gaggaaggaaaaaaaaaaagaaagag? Examples of Building elements for Sanitary systems _—_________________________———-———-—-——-—— Bath tub, front/side covers, mixer unit, mixers, stop valves, drainpipe to water trap. (52) Bath tubs _____i___________________.___________aa_F_____________i_.____.___n_________________ ‘ (52) Shower units Pre—assembled shower unit, drainpipe to drain water trap. Washbasin, support brackets, mixer unit, stop valves, drainpipe to water trap- (52) Washbasin ___h___H_______fl___________________d________________h__,_________________________ (52) Water closet W.C. pan, seat, stop valve, drainpipe seals, toilet roll holder. ___________________,__._._.__._._._.___.._..._—.———-———————-—— (52) Kitchen sink Sink, mixer unit, stop valves, water trap, drain. _h____________________________.n_________i_____F________‘___________n_______n (52) Dishwashers Dishwasher, drainpipe, connecting hoses to water supply. _____________________._.__...__—___—....._————~—-—-———-— (52) Gully sink Sink, bracket supports, mixer unit, water trap, drainpipe. ,_______________________________________________________________.__________.______ ' (52) Washing machine Washing machine, drain hose pipes, drainpipe to water trap, connecting hoses to water supply. __________________,_,—._____.._..—___——.-—-—————--——- (53) water meters Water meter, stop valves, discharge valve, brackets, insulation. ______________,___—__.....—______.———-——-——————-— (53) Hot water tank Hot water tank, heating unit, circula— tion pump, stop valves, air discharge valve, control unit (thermostat), water meter, thermometers, pipe system, insu— lation, electric system. 24 Examples of Building eiements for Heating Systems .___._______________________.____________._______________________________________________l_ (56) Chimney Steel chimney, bolts for base plate, base plate pattern. Smoke exhaust pipe Smoke exhaust pipe, packing. wall sleeve, bolts, Boiler unit Boiler, oil burner, spare burner nozz— le, oil spill tray, shunt pump, piping, valves, oil filter, meters, control unit, insulation, elec. supply. Oil tanks Tank, excavated hole, backfill, fill material, base Chocks, cover, bearing studs with cover, piping, warning system. Expansion tank Expansion tank with hot water pipes, brackets, insulation. Pumps, piping, valves, brackets, mano— meter, insulation, elec. supply. Space heating Heating unit, bleed screw. brackets, control unit, (56) Floor or ceiling heating (piped) Pipe units, bracket supports. (56) Control units for floor/ceiling hea— ting systems Pipe systems, bracket supports, vents, unions, air bleed valve. (56) Radiators Radiator, brackets, valves, connecting adapters, air bleed valve. (56) Temperature regula— Piping, brackets, valves, pumps, con— tion unit for radia- trol unit, thermometer insulation, tors elec. supply. 26 r“- w I‘"'=‘t -fl| e1.- Examples of Building elements for Ventilation Systems {57) Exhaust air intake (57) Air conditioning Plant components, base supports, con— nectors, bolts etc., control unit, elec. system. (57) Temperature conditio— Piping, base supports, shunt valves, ning, hot surfaces pumps, control unit, thermometer, insu— lation, elec. supply. (57) Conditioning unit, humidifiers Piping, valves, filter, control unit, insulation, elec. supply. (57) Secondary conditio- ning plant, direct intake Air—conditioning unit, base supports, valves, control unit, grilles. (57) Secondary treatment Air—conditioning unit, valves, control plant, intake through unit. separate unit __________________________n________________________________________,______________ (57) Intake unit Mounting, mounting frame. (57) Extraction unit Mounting, mounting frame. (57) Extraction plan Plant components, base supports, connectors, bolts etc., control unit, elec. system. (57) Air discharge 28 .gh yr: Examples of Building elements for Furniture and Equipment ———_...___.__....__.____..._______________________ Note that permanently plumbed and electrical items — for example, mixer taps and light fittings are included in technical services (5), and electric and mechani— cal services (6). __________________________________________n_____________u_____________n__________ (71) Technical equipment Dispensers for food, drink, soap etc. Portable lamps. Fire extinguishers. __w_____l_________i______________________________________u________w___‘fl__________ (72) Boards, signs and Signs, mirrors etc. screens Audio—visual equipment, boards, projector screens. _____H_______________.___l________________________________l____________________________ (73) Storage furniture Shelves. Cupboards and furniture with drawers. Kitchen cupboards. Bathroom cabinets. —-———-—————————_—._._—__—___‘—___—________ (74) Tables Table tops. Work tops. Tables for rest and relaxation. W (75) Seating Chairsr benches etc. for work use. Chairs, benches etc. for rest and relaxation. _—-—————m—_——m__——_fl_——'_____ (76) Beds Beds for dwellings. Beds for institutions. W (77) Household textiles, Curtains. blinds and screens Carpets and mats. Blinds. Screens. 32 Drawing Levels —__.__._____.________________ Aim: Drawing levels enable drawings to be re—used to the greatest possible extent. General Principles of Drawings prOposes a spreading of the information on building elements on various levels. 5 drawing levels Experience from many building projects has shown that classifying drawings into 5 different levels is most appropriate. Level 1: General drawings These drawings — also referred to as “main” drawings - show an overall survey of the building or major parts of the building or sections of buildings. Level 2: Index plans Index plans show the position of looation drawings in a building or section of a building. Level 2 is main— ly used in connection with major building projects. Level 3: Location drawings Location drawings show the location of a specific building element in the building. Level 4: Element drawings Element drawings - also referred to as “unit or com— ponent” drawings — show a designed element in its entirety. Level 5: Detail drawings Detail drawings show the component parts and assembly details of the designed element. References The coaordination of drawings on the various levels is done using a cross—referenced, code system from the general drawing down to the detail drawings. The actual code consists of the drawing‘s number on the following level. 1 GENERAL DRAWINGS 2 INDEX PLANS 3 LOCATION DRAWINGS 4 ELEMENT DRAWINGS 5 DETAi unmwmas 36 L‘s’J-Li! I, . war: 'I : H I" J sac ' ‘I' “12953-5331 i LELdLb'bLg‘i Ln.» Lin" Lid NIVEAU 1 E bmuma 2,4,6 (99) 1,4 EVENING 1,3,5 (99) WW :4 a5 :9 I“ in 62945 (294 (.4; (2.; 3‘; -. 5. 53$" OVERexaw-sre‘gfiy NIVEAU4 37 Drawing Levels Drawing levels as an aid to the production team An appropriate division of the level of the drawings gives the production team a practical basis for the assembly and construction of building elements. I LOCALIZATION IE BUILDING ELEMENT I PRODUCTION OF BUILDING ELE- " Levels 1, 2 and 3 are used to define the position and location of any building element in buildings and dwellings. A location drawing‘s prime function is to act as a practical guide for the production of building ele— ments on the building site, while element and detail drawings — levels 4 and 5 — are used for the actual production of building elements, either on—site or in a factory. 38 Classification of drawings —_—_____.__....____—————_—— General Principles of Drawings recommends that drawings are classified by a number consisting of 3 or 4 figu- res — each with its own function. LOCATION NUMBER (where appiicable) 5(21)3.4 ELEMENT NUMBER DRAWING LEVEL NUMBER SHEET/SERIAL NUMBER Element number The building element number gives the group to which the drawing belongs. To a great extent General Prin— ciples of Drawings uses the same guidelines for the classification of building elements as the SfB ele— ment table — as described in the section on building elements. Delimitation of the individual elements therefore makes it easier to Classify and code drawings, with element numbers in accordance with the table given on the back of this report. The building element number has two figures and is written in brackets. Where a drawing illustrates elements from different building element groups, the element number is chosen on the basis of the following guidelines: - It can often be practical to show elements which belong to the same main group, e.g. (21) outer walls and (22} inner walls. The drawings are usual— ly numbered (19) (29) {39) etc. - Where a drawing covers elements from different main groups, e.g. (12) foundations and (52} domestic waste and drainage, the drawing will be coded with the element number (99). Drawing level number The drawing level number is selected on the basis of the guidelines in the section — drawing levels. The level number has one figure and is followed by a full stop. Sheet/serial number The sheet number can be chosen at random. The range of the numbers used should conform to the scope of the project. In practice, a consecutive numbering system can only be recommended for minor projects with few drawings. With larger projects it is an advantage to allocate set numbers to related drawings. 50 (21)a4 ((211) 3. a on a 4 1 _ 6.3 ‘ a: at - :5 63 - :3 89 . :3 1 63 - :3 69 - so: 33 - :3 a: - :5 rmEEzm EmEEzm EMEEsw EmEEzm BmEEsm meEzm EmEEsm EmEEnw 2 $9 at 83 Ame 83 63 as a c L rl. '— mmoEmm mmszc vmiam mco:m_qE8 $5526 $56383 $52: 550 32:86 550 mmoEmm EEO 650 BED EEO EEO ‘ g at 89 63 as $9 T may a : mucmE ucm mmuEmw 822mm mEcoEv mwcmE: 3:an - mcozmanu - 82mmEoE m9:me _mo_cmzomE 6:5 .50. :m cam 33> £00m £00m 960.“. 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General principles of drawings - m; UJDI'J mmwwmmmwwwmuuw...

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