Chapter 10 - Wade(1)

Chapter 10 - Wade(1) - Chapter 10 Structure and Synthesis...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10 Structure and Synthesis of Alcohols Dr. David P. Brown St. Johns University Introduction to General and Organic Chemistry III _____________________________ Chapter 10 2 Classification Primary : carbon with OH is bonded to one other carbon. Secondary : carbon with OH is bonded to two other carbons. Tertiary : carbon with OH is bonded to three other carbons. Aromatic (phenol):-OH is bonded to a benzene ring. => Chapter 10 3 Examples: CH 3 CH CH 3 CH 2 OH CH 3 C CH 3 CH 3 OH OH CH 3 CH OH CH 2 CH 3 => Chapter 10 4 IUPAC Nomenclature Find the longest carbon chain containing the carbon with the -OH group. Drop the -e from the alkane name, add - ol . Number the chain, starting from the end closest to the -OH group. Number and name all substituents. => Chapter 10 5 Examples: CH 3 CH CH 3 CH 2 OH CH 3 C CH 3 CH 3 OH CH 3 CH OH CH 2 CH 3 OH Br CH 3 Chapter 10 6 Unsaturated Alcohols Hydroxyl group takes precedence. Assign that carbon the lowest number. Use alkene or alkyne name. 4-Penten-2-ol (old) Pent-4-ene-2-ol (1997 revision of IUPAC rules) CH 2 CHCH 2 CHCH 3 OH Chapter 10 7 Functional Group Naming Priority Acids Esters Aldehydes Ketones Alcohols Amines Alkenes Alkynes Alkanes Ethers Halides => Chapter 10 8 Hydroxyl as a Substituent When -OH is part of a higher priority class of compound, it is named as a hydroxy substituent. Example : CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 COOH OH Chapter 10 9 Common Names Alcohols are named as alkyl alcohols . Useful only for small alkyl groups. Examples : CH 3 CH CH 3 CH 2 OH CH 3 CH OH CH 2 CH 3 Chapter 10 10 Naming Diols Two numbers are used to indicate locations of the two -OH groups. The suffix diol is used instead of -ol. HO OH Chapter 10 11 Glycols 1,2 diols (vicinal diols) are called glycols. Common names for glycols use the name of the alkene from which they were made ....
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This note was uploaded on 09/04/2011 for the course CHE 1130 taught by Professor Brown during the Fall '08 term at St. Johns Duplicate.

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Chapter 10 - Wade(1) - Chapter 10 Structure and Synthesis...

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