Chapter 18 - Wade(1)

Chapter 18 - Wade(1) - Chapter 18 Ketones and Aldehydes Dr....

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 18 Ketones and Aldehydes Dr. David P. Brown Department of Chemistry Introduction to General and Organic Chemistry III Chapter 18 2 Carbonyl Structure Carbon is sp 2 hybridized. C=O bond is shorter, stronger, and more polar than C=C bond in alkenes. => Chapter 18 3 IUPAC Names for Ketones Replace - e with - one . Indicate the position of the carbonyl with a number. Number the chain so that carbonyl carbon has the lowest number . For cyclic ketones the carbonyl carbon is assigned the number 1 . Chapter 18 4 Examples CH 3 C O CH CH 3 CH 3 O Br CH 3 C O CH CH 3 CH 2 OH Chapter 18 5 Naming Aldehydes IUPAC: Replace - e with - al . The aldehyde carbon is number 1 . If -CHO is attached to a saturated ring, use the suffix - carbaldehyde . => Chapter 18 6 Examples CH 3 CH 2 CH CH 3 CH 2 C H O CHO => Chapter 18 7 Name as Substituent On a molecule with a higher priority functional group, C=O is oxo- and - CHO is formyl. Aldehyde priority is higher than ketone. CH 3 C CH CH 3 CH 2 C H O O COOH CHO => Chapter 18 8 Common Names for Ketones Named as alkyl attachments to -C=O. Use Greek letters instead of numbers . CH 3 C O CH CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH C O CH CH 3 CH 3 Br Chapter 18 9 Historical Common Names CH 3 C O CH 3 C CH 3 O C O Chapter 18 10 Aldehyde Common Names Use the common name of the acid. Drop - ic acid and add - aldehyde . 1 C: formic acid, formaldehyde 2 Cs: acetic acid, acetaldehyde 3 Cs: propionic acid, propionaldehyde 4 Cs: butyric acid, butyraldehyde....
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Chapter 18 - Wade(1) - Chapter 18 Ketones and Aldehydes Dr....

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