Nutrition Week 2 Notes

Nutrition Week 2 Notes - Digestion, Absorption and...

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Digestion, Absorption and Transport Chapter 3
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Basic Structures of Cell Estimated 50 trillion cells in human body -Glucose -Amino Acids -Fatty Acids -Vitamins -Minerals -Water
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Digestion versus Absorption Digestion - Absorption -
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Structures of the Gastrointestinal Tract
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Ingestion starts the process in the mouth. Important structures: - Teeth - Salivary glands - release enzymes to start starch digestion - Tongue
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Importance of the Epiglottis Epiglottis (cartilage) closes to prevent food from entering the pharynx and lungs http://leavingbio.net/Human%20Nutrition/Human%20Nutrition.htm
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The Esophagus Upper esophageal sphincter Lower esophageal sphincter
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Movement of food components through GI tract involves peristalsis. http://leavingbio.net/Human%20Nutrition/Human%20Nutrition.htm Stomach - ~3 waves of contraction per minute Small intestine - >10 waves of contraction per minute http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o18UycWRsaA
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Lower Esophageal Sphincter - One of six sphincters
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The Stomach - Has 3 sets of muscles to grind and churn food - Food is mixed with acids and enzymes to form chyme
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The Stomach Gastric glands secrete gastric juices primarily for protein digestion 1) Water 2) Enzymes 3) Hydrochloric acid What protects the the stomach cells from the strong acidity??
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Heartburn (gastroesophageal reflux) Hydrochloric acid rises into esophagus Calcium carbonate neutralizes pH
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The Pyloric Sphincter stomach small intestine Pyloric sphincter Keeps chyme in stomach until completely liquified
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The Small Intestine 3 parts : 1) Duodenum 2) Jejunum 3) Ileum ~10 feet long in most adults
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The Duodenum http://leavingbio.net/Human%20Nutrition/Human%20Nutrition.htm Produces bile Stores and concentrates bile Secretes bile into duodenum Secretes pancreatic juices into duodenum Secretes pancreatic juices containing enzymes (for digestion of fat, protein and carbs.) and sodium bicarbonate
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The Large Intestine 4 sections : 1) Ascending colon 2) Transverse colon 3) Descending colon 4) Sigmoid colon Ileocecal valve
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Structures of the Gastrointestinal Tract http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
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Absorption How do different nutrients enter the body?????
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folds with villi on them stomach small intestine Absorption in the Small Intestine muscle layers
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microvilli
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lymphatic vessel capillaries a villus lymphatic vessel vein artery crypt
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Mechanisms of Absorption Requires Energy!
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Facilitated Diffusion - Iron transport Carrier: DMT1
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This note was uploaded on 09/04/2011 for the course 01 189:101 at Rutgers.

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Nutrition Week 2 Notes - Digestion, Absorption and...

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