WaterSolubleVitamins-Posted

WaterSolubleVitamins-Posted - Water-soluble vitamins...

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Water-soluble vitamins Lectures 2 and 3 February 28, 2010
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Riboflavin: Part of coenzymes: Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) FAD picks up 2 H+ from TCA cycle and delivers to ETC
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Citrate Isocitrate Alpha-ketoglutarate Succinyl CoA Succinate Fumrate Malate FAD FADH2
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Riboflavin: Food Sources Milk and milk products Liver Whole and enriched grains Green leafy vegetables Food Preparation and Storage Broken down by UV light Stable to heat, not destroyed by cooking RDA for men: 1.3 mg/day RDA for women: 1.1 mg/day
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Riboflavin deficiency and toxicity Ariboflavinosis Inflammation of membranes of the mouth, skin, eyes Purplish-red tongue Cracks at corners of mouth Sore throat Excess riboflavin intake does not appear to be harmful No Upper Level established
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Niacin ( vitamin B3) Forms part of coenzymes NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and NADP (NAD phosphate) Participates in metabolic reactions - carries H+ to ETC Two forms: Converted by the body
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NADH NAD Glucose Metabolism
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Citrate Succinyl CoA NAD NADH NAD NADH NAD NADH TCA cycle
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Niacin Food Sources Chicken, ground beef Tuna Whole and enriched grains Legumes Food Preparation and Storage Fairly heat resistant Leaches into cooking water
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Niacin Recommendations Body can synthesize it Tryptophan used as building block 60 mg of dietary tryptophan is used to make 1 mg of niacin Recommended intakes stated in Niacin Equivalents (NE) - Food containing: - 1 mg niacin + 60 mg tryptophan = 2 ng of niacin RDA for men: 16 mg NE/day RDA for women: 14 mg NE/day
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Niacin Deficiency Bilateral and symmetrical dermatitis Pellagra Symptoms (4 Ds) - diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death Widespread in South in early 1900s
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Niacin Toxicity Naturally occurring niacin causes no harm Large doses from supplements can produce adverse effects Niacin Flush - nicotinic acid levels 3-4X RDA - Dilates capillaries - Painful hives and rash - Nausea inositol hexaniacinate
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Citrate Alpha-ketoglutarate Succinyl CoA Biotin Delivers carbon dioxide to metabolic pathways Biotin
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Food Sources Widespread in foods Egg yolks Whole grains Liver Needed in very small amounts: AI - 30 microg/day No known toxicities from diet Deficiency occurs rarely Could be produced by eating raw egg whites (12 per day over several months) - Avidin Biotin
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Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) Forms part of the structure of coenzyme A
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Pg 223 CoA is derived from Pantothenic acid Fatty Acid Oxidation
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WaterSolubleVitamins-Posted - Water-soluble vitamins...

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