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Fungi Relationship with Plants (1)

Fungi Relationship with Plants (1) - Lichens-algae and...

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1 Chapter 14: Symbiotic Relationships of Fungi with Plants Mycorrhizae and other Endophytes - How do terrestrial plants w/o chlorophyll get food - Monotropa aka Indian pipes o white sheath of matted and somewhat wholly substance - mycorrhiza = fungus w/root - most perennial plants have mycorrhizal relationships - Amanita, boletus, Cantharellus, Tuber - Some hyphae penetrate root tissue, but stay bt/wn root cells “ectomycorrhizae” - Some “endomycorrhizae” o Genus Glomus - Increase absorptive surface area of host plant - Protection from nematodes - Minerals - Eef Arnolds = air pollutants may be contributing to decline of these formerly common fungi o Deleterious role of nitrogen contamination from nearby agricultural fields - Unthrifty mycorrhizal population - Fungi = “endophytes” vegetative bodies are w/in the host plant o Neotyphodium = responsible for the toxicity of some grasses to livestock produce ergovaline, ergosine, and ergonine
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Unformatted text preview: Lichens-algae and ascomycetes (relatives to cup fungi) -fungus mycelium absorbs water and uses enzymes to extract nutrients from substrate -alga = photosynthesis carbs -how “helpful” o alga can live alone o hyphae of fungi penetrate algal cells and form absorptive structures -lichens produce flakes of combined fungus and alga (soredia) in a powdery mass on upper surface -others produce fragile, upright pillars (isidia) containing cells on both partners -dependent on atmosphere and rainfall for nutrition -Food o Deserts of the Middle East, the manna lichen ( Aspicilia esculenta) = foodstuff that save Old Testament children of Israel from starvation o George Washington’s troops-Radioactive materials in lichens reindeers people s o Nuclear reactor explosion in Chernobyl in 1986 -Usno = usnic acid = superior to penicillin -Lichens perfumes -Dye wool fabrics...
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