urinary system - Urinary System Chapter 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 a...

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Urinary System - Chapter 16 1. a) Excretion of Metabolic Wastes – Excretes urea, creatinine, uric acid and ammonium. These are produced through nitrogenous wastes, end product of metabolism, the break down of amino acids and the breakdown of creatine phosphate. b) Maintenance of Water-Salt Balance – Looks after the appropriate water-salt balance of blood in the kidneys. More salt = greater blood volumn = higher blood pressure. Kidneys also maintain appropriate levels of ions such as potassium, bicarbonate, and calcium ions in the blood. c) Maintenance of Acid-Base Balance – Regulates acid-base balance in the blood. Blood pH must stay within a relatively small range for functions to work within the body. The kidneys regulate this balance by excreting hydrogen ions and reabsorbing bicarbonate ions to keep the blood at a pH of 7.4 (Urine usually has a pH = 6). d) Secretion of Hormones – Assist the endocrine system in hormone secretion. They release renin which leads to the secretion of aldosterone (released from adrenal cortex) which promotes the reabsorption of sodium ions by the kidneys. When oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is reduced, the hormone erythropoietin is secreted which releases red blood cell production. Kidneys also help activate vitamin D. 2. Renal artery/vein – located at the hilum Ureters - conduct urine from the kidneys to the bladder (small muscular tubes). Decends beneath the peritoneum from the hilum to enter the bladder. Peristaltic contractions cause urine to enter the bladder. Urinary bladder – stores urine until it is expelled. Located in the pelvic cavity with 3 holes. Small folds of bladder mucosa to prevent backward flow.
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urinary system - Urinary System Chapter 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 a...

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