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Electrical-Properties-Lecture

Electrical-Properties-Lecture - CHAPTER 18 ELECTRICAL...

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Chapter 18- ISSUES TO ADDRESS... How are electrical conductance and resistance characterized ? 1 What are the physical phenomena that distinguish conductors, semiconductors, and insulators? For metals, how is conductivity affected by imperfections, T, and deformation? For semiconductors, how is conductivity affected by impurities (doping) and T? CHAPTER 18: ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
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Chapter 18- 2 Scanning electron microscope images of an IC: A dot map showing location of Si (a semiconductor): --Si shows up as light regions. A dot map showing location of Al (a conductor): --Al shows up as light regions. 0.5mm 45 μ m Al Si (doped) Fig. (a), (b), (c) from Fig. 18.0, Callister 6e . Fig. (d) from Fig. 18.25, Callister 6e . (Fig. 18.25 is courtesy Nick Gonzales, National Semiconductor Corp., West Jordan, UT.) (a) (b) (c) (d) VIEW OF AN INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
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Chapter 18- 3 Ohm's Law: V = I R voltage drop (volts) resistance (Ohms) current (amps) V I e - A (cross sect. area) L Resistivity, ρ and Conductivity, σ : --geometry-independent forms of Ohm's Law    V L = I A ρ E: electric field intensity resistivity (Ohm-m) J: current density    σ = I ρ conductivity Resistance:    R = ρ L A = L A σ ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION
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Chapter 18- Polystyrene <10 -14 Polyethylene 10 -15 -10 -17 Silver 6.8 x 10 7 Copper 6.0 x 10 7 Iron 1.0 x 10 7 METALS Silicon 4 x 10 -4 Germanium 2 x 10 0 GaAs 10 -6 SEMICONDUCTORS Soda-lime glass 10 -10 Concrete 10 -9 Aluminum oxide <10 -13 CERAMICS POLYMERS conductors semiconductors insulators 4 Room T values (Ohm-m) -1 Selected values from Tables 18.1, 18.2, and 18.3, Callister 6e .
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