inequality - INEQUALITY INEQUALITY Group 1 Group Tran Thi...

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Unformatted text preview: INEQUALITY INEQUALITY Group 1: Group Tran Thi Hoang Ha Tran Cao Thi Hong Hanh Nguyen Thanh Huyen Nguyen Do Quynh Lien Le Xuan Ngan Nguyen Thi Minh Nguyet Nguyen Thi Mai Phuong We are not afraid of shortage, only of distributing what we have unequally. -HO CHI MINH President- Content Content What is inequality and why is inequality What considerable? considerable? How to measure inequality? How is the gap between the rich and the poor How reflected? reflected? What determine inequality? The necessity of applying new policies. What is inequality and why is inequality cosiderable? inequality - Inequality : “wealth and income differences”. When economic growth goes along with inequality: inequality: Poverty reduction will be delay. The social cohesion will be reduce. The How to measure inequality? How Two methods to measure directly inequality: Two 1. Comparing the density of expenditure: 1. Two groups of population: - 1/5 population who are the poorest people 1/5 - 1/5 population who are the richest people 1/5 of the whole population expenditure. 2. Using Gini coefficient: -The Gini coefficient is a measure of the inequality of a -The distribution. distribution. -The Gini coefficient can range from 0 to 1. A low Gini coefficient indicates a more equal distribution, with 0 corresponding to complete equality, while higher Gini coefficients indicate more unequal distribution Gini coefficient based on expenditure per capita of some countries Year Gini coefficient Bangladesh 1995/96 0.34 India 1996 0.33 Indonesia 1996 0,37 Pakistan 1996/97 0.31 Peru 1997 0.35 Thailand 1998 0.41 Vietnam 1998 0.35 Source: “Nhóm công tác về nghèo đói,1999” page 70 How is the gap between the rich and the poor reflected? the Focus on three key indicators: 1. Housing. Housing. 2. 2. Conveniences. Conveniences. 3. 3. Cultural life. Cultural What determine inequality? What Ethnic factor. Education. Job. Family size. Geographical factor. Multinomial logistic regression model Multinomial (Measure the impact of individual variable ) Conclusion Conclusion Inequality in Vietnam is at moderate level. The main reason of this reality is the growing The gap in living standards between rural and urban areas. The increase of inequality weakens the social The links and slow down the poverty reduction process. process. The Government should promote more rural The development programes. Comment Comment Using reliable data from surveys of living Vietnam in 1992-93 and 1997-98. - Three key indicators are quite appropriate. -The choice of choosing variable is entirely reasonable since it can describe the impact honestly. - ...
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